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    CNC LATHE

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    CNC LATHE INSTRUCTION MANUAL I PROGRAMMING I SEIKI-SEICOS 21 OL/21 L Edition 1. 4-1 999 OSEIKI, Hitachi Seiki Co., Ltd.

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    - To use our products safety PRECAUTIONS FOR SAFETY 03-1 998 Precautions for safety are precautions to use our products in safety. Before using our products, please read and understand safety items for operation, inspection or maintenance sufficiently and use it upon making them your own. If you ...

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    Important Information (1) blast NC machine operation and maintenance accidents are caused by failure to observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous situations before an accident occurs. 2 Make sure to read and understand ail saf...

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    1. WEARING OF SAFETY CLOTHES AND PROTECTION DEVICE To use a machine tool safely, the first thing to remember is safety operation. The basis of safety operation is wearing a proper clothes and protection device. A. DIRECTIONS ABOUT WEARING OF SAFETY CLOTHES (1) Clothes should be checked before sta...

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    (6) When disposing of chips, if chips are scattered or cutting fluid is spilled on the floor, clear them immediately. When floor is wet, wipe it with a dry rag, as it is slippery and dangerous. 3. SET UP AND TEST CUT (1) Mouthpiece of a stock-vice and fixture should be checked before use. (2) Nev...

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    ONC LATHE I (1) When a door is opening condition, there is a risk of cutting a hand etc. by touching a part with sharp edge such as jaw, tool or center etc. Don't touch to the edge section. Especially, under operation of the machine, don't touch to the moving parts since a risk is increased. (2) ...

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    4. LOADINGIUNLOADING METHOD OF WORKPIECE @NC LATHE (1) At the time of opening or closing the chuck, there is a risk of having fingers may pinched between a jaw and workpiece by moving jaw. Hold a workpiece as your fingers don't get into the moving area of jaw to avoid pinching with care. (2) Movi...

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    ONC LATHE I .MACHINING CENTER (5) Gripping force of jaw is decided by a thrust force of cylinder and thrust force of cylinder is decided by hydraulic pressure. Hydraulic pressure of cylinder is set by chuck pressure setting valve and display it at the pressure gauge. (6) As the standard of grippi...

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    .NC LATHE (10) Thrust force of tailstock decreases gradually by leakage from valves when shut off a hydraulic pressure including electric power turns off. Shut off a hydraulic pressure should be done after unloading of workpiece. (1 1) When a face drive is applied at the chuck side, back up force...

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    @NC LATHE (1) If a machining program has an error, a workpiece and tool may clash or a workpiece is flying out by excessive cutting load. (2) During proceeding of actual machining, load is deviated by dispersion of workpiece and wear or breakage of tool tip additionally. Manage tools to check a d...

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    6. ABOUT WORKING CONTENTS AND MACHINE CONDITION (Mark - is not specified particularly.) Proceed a work by the following machine condition to work. Explanation of display of automatic operation About working contents and machine condition (Mark - is not stipulated particularly.) 19 20 21 [I] [2] [...

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    7. PROHIBITION OF REMOVAL OF PROTECTING DEVICES (1) The machine provide various safety and protecting devices (safety cover, chip guard, ATC cover, safety fence, other safety devices for machine etc.) to keep a safety for operator. Never remove or stop functions of these protecting devices. (2) N...

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    (7) In case of a power breakdown, the spindle moves on for some time by inertia rotation. Before opening the door, make sure that the spindle has come to a complete stop. 9. PREVENTION OF FIRE During operation of the machine tool, the following items should be observed strictly to prevent a gener...

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    Specifications of electric wire are shown on the electric circuit diagram. Provide a power transformer if a voltage of power source exceeds 2001220V. Secondary side of the transformer should be grounded with grounding resistance of 100 ohm or less. Source power is to be obtained via a separate tr...

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    12. STANDARD OF SAFETY CHECK Check before starting work Check the following items. (1) Do you comply with the items stated on the caution plate? (2) Does your working bear suitable for the work? (Refer to the item of working wear.) (3) Do you wear a prescribed protecting device? Wear safety cap, ...

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    Periodic check Periodic check is required according to the section or function of the machine. Execute them in accordance with the maintenance manual attached with the machine. - Maintenance work Refer to the item of check and maintenance work. 13. REGARDING CAUTION PLATE To use the product safet...

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    : A level of risk element that could cause to a death. order. : A level of risk element that could cause to a serious injury. : A level of risk element that lead to an injury. However, the matter which is shown in the serious result in case by case. Left hand side is more risky level in this , th...

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    CONTENTS lNTRODUCTlON ......................................................... i 1 . PREPARATION FOR TOOL LAYOUT .................................. 1-1 1-1 Toolset .......................................................... 1-2 1-2Tool Layout .........................................................

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    2-3-18canned cycle ................................................ 2-57 2-3-1 9 G70. G71. G72. G73. G74. G75 Compound Repetitive ................................................ cycle (option) 2-66 ................................. 2-3-20 G32. G92. G76 Thread Cutting 2-82 ..........................

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    4-5-1 Machining Method by Single Program ............................. 4-17 4-5-2 Machining Method by Subprogram Calling ......................... 4-18 4-6 Operation Example of Many Shout Length Works ..................... 4-19 5 . FEFERENCE MATERIALS ........................................... 5...

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    7. REFERENCE (SPECIFICATIONS OF C-AXIS CONTROL) ................ 7-1 7-1 How to Calculate C-axis Feed Rate for Long Hole Machining ............. 7-1 7-2 How to Calculate the Number of Rotation and FeedRateoftheRotatingTool ...................................... 7-3

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    - INTRODUCTION In this manual, from tool layout to machining, various rules of actual operation and notability are explained Actual process up to completion of the workpiece by the section of programming in the flow shown on right column. Note) See " Delivery Description" regarding the...

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    I. PREPARATION FOR TOOL LAYOUT There are limit of range of travel and other limits according to the machine specifications and safety. Refer to "Specifications Manual" of each machine type for stroke, work operation range, tool interference diagram and Q setter.work interference diagram...

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    1-1 Tool Set Standard Tool Set In order to keep operation procedure of the work and to avoid interference of the tool and the chuck large tools such as the base holder shall be set permanently. Further, set the tools as you like in order to satisfy the operation accuracy of the small tools such a...

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    Standard Tool Set TO6 ID grooving TO7 OD and face finishing p47 TO5 OD grooving TI0 ID threading w for face and OD Specifications of 10-station Variable turret

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    Standard Tool Set TO6 ID grooving TO7 OD and face finishing TO8 ID finishing TO4 ID rough boring TO9 OD threading TO3 OD pmfifing or ~io ID threarlnrs TO1 Rough cutting for face and OD Specifications of 1 0-station QCT turret

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    Standard Tool Set TO7 Ot grooving TO6 ID rough boring TO8 ID grooving TO5 OD profiling or TO9 OD and face. finishing TI0 ID finishing TI 1 OD threading TO3 OD profiling or TO2 Center drill or Starting drill TI2 ID threading TO1 Rough cutting for face and OD Specifications if 12-station QCT turret...

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    1-2 Tool Layout Part name SAMPLE nsEIrn CNC LATHE: TOOL LAYOUT DRAWING Example of tool layout tor chuck work Process : Process 1,2 NC unit

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    1-3 NC Address and Range of Command Value Coordinate value Address 0 N G Range of command value 1-99999999 1-99999999 0-999

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    2. PROGRAMMING 2-1 Basis for Programming 2-1 -1 Program Reference Point and Coordinate Values For a CNC lathe, coordinate axes X and Z are set on the machine and their intersecting point is called a "program reference point". The X axis assumes a spindle center line to be a position of...

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    2-1 -2 Regarding Machine Zero Point Properly speaking, the machine zero point and reference point is a different position, however, as for our NC lathe make the both points the same position. Therefore, here in after the reference point calls as the machine zero point in this manual. It is a posi...

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    N5 M01 Llrnits a maximum spindle speed lo 1 2,000 rpm. I ,----m TO7000 05802 I , N702 G97 51500 M08 Calls the turrei head lo be used. I N1 G28 UO N2 G28 WO Toloo N3 G50 52000 N4 GOO X200.0 2200.0 / N703 GOO X30.0 Z1O.O M03 \ ~epresenls a "program number" and used to dlstlngulsh from oth...

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    2-2 Details of F, S, T and M Functions 2-2-1 F Function (Feed Function) G99 mode F 000. q (Up to 5 digits in increment of 0.001) mmlrev Specify a cutting "feed rate" per spindle revolution or a lead of the threading. (Example) 0.3 mmlrev = F0.3 or F30 1.0 mmlrev = F1.O or Fl00 1.5 P thr...

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    In Case of F command is missing in the block, F value is effective which is designated just preceding block in G98, G99 mode respectively. To be concrete, it becomes as follows: Indicate "F" that becomes effective in that block with ! 1 . (Feed per minute) When the power is turn ON 0 Nl...

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    (Example) G96 S150 : A spindle speed is controlled to 150 150 rn/min cutting speed at the cutting point. ..... Refer to the left figure. * Formula for calculating the spindle speed from the surface speed V : Surface speed (mlmin) btaining the spindl Feed fmrnlhe D : Tool nose position (6 mm) surf...

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    In case of rotary tool, there are four additional interlocks as follows. (I) The connection of C-axis shall be in the status of OFF (M40 command). (Option) (2) The connection of rotating tool shall be in the status of OFF (M45 command). (Option) (3) Set up of the ACT shall be cancel condition. (O...

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    3. Compound Offset When an adjustment is made on diametrical dimension of 50 and 70mm respectively at the following workpiece, two or more offset can be applied on one tool. Example 1) L 40 TO900 OFFSET 25 X-0.3 ZO RO TO Example) Input status of dimension adjustment when the part 670 is made larg...

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    4. Multi tool compensation When set up tools 2 or more on the same face on the turret described below, give plural compensation on a face and set up the coordinate for each tool respectively. Command system of compound compensation,md furthermore. set up tools deem as In nose raW and c- (Example)...

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    D. Program example jJJ Turret face No.1 Turret face N0.3 Offset No.1 Offset N0.3 Turret face No.6 (Compound compensation 33,34) (Offset No.6, 36) Nl00 TO100 The turret face No.1 is indexed and setting-up is I performed by the data of offset No.1. M01 N300 TO300 The turret face No.3 is indexed and...

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    2-2-4 M Function (Miscellaneous Function) List (TS15, HTZOR~IZ~RIU) 1 I 1 when measuring a workpiece or removing cutting chips. 1 Please refer to the details on the Delivery specifications as to the discrimination between Standard or Option. (The spindle and coolant also stop.) To restart, press ...

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    M code M18 MI9 M23 M24 M25 M26 M27 M28 M30 M31 Function Release the spindle Positioning Spindle Positioning Chamfering ON (automatic thread chamfering) Chamfering OFF Tailstock low speed advance Tailstock high speed retract Tailstock high speed advance Tailstock retract end Program end (memory op...

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    The feedrate override is ignores. , M49 feedrate override is not effective

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    measuring sensor measuring sensor M73 arm RETURN Work measuring sensor air blow ON Air is blown to work measuring sensor.

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    ondition is neglected. When measuring arm swings, chuck open/close condition becomes effective.

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    Description Air is blown from turret. Air blow from turret stops. M code MI24 Mi25 Function Turret air blow ON Turret air blow OFF

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    M Function (Miscellaneous Function) List (TF25) I I measuring a workpiece or removing cutting chips. (The Please refer to the details on the Delivery specifications as to the discrimination between Standard or Option. spindle and coolant also stop.) To restart, press the CYCLE START key. However,...

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    M code MI9 M23 M24 M25 M26 M27 - M28 M30 M31 M32 Function Spindle Positioning Chamfering ON (automatic thread chamfering) Chamfering OFF Tailstock low speed advance Tailstock high speed retact Tailstock high speed advance Tailstock backward end Program end (memory operation) No-workpiece chuck Nu...

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    Check condition becomes effective. Check condition rogram. If specified in the main program, the program

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    M Function (Miscellaneous Function) List (~~25~130~) Please refer to the details on the Delivery specifications as to the discrimination between Standard or Option. 1 Mcode I Function Description 1 M03 1 Spindle forward ]viewing from the tailstock side, this code starts the spindle I MOO M01 M02 ...

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    M code MI8 MI9 M23 M24 M25 M26 M30 M31 M32 M33 M34 M35 Function Release the spindle Positioning Spindle Positioning Chamfering ON (automatic thread chamfering) Chamfering OFF Tailstock advance Tailstock retract Program end (memory operation) No-workpiece chuck Number check Top cut chuck Top cut r...

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    Power is off by command of MOO, M01, M02 or M30 when M48 M49 M51 M52 M53 M54 not effective feedrate override is effective feedrate override is not effective Spindle air blow ON Spindle air blow OFF Open/close condition neglect of tool tip measurement check ON Openlclose condition neglect of tool ...

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    measuring arm swing in

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    measuring censor measuring censor M82 M83 M84 M88 M89 M98 M99 Robot service 2 Chuck interlock of tool tip measurement is not effective Chuck interlock of tool tip measurement is effective Machine proper standby Release standby of robot Subprogram calling Main program return Robot start 2 The mach...

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    M Function (Miscellaneous Function) List (HT40GI50G) I I measuring a workpiece or removing cutting chips. (The Please refer to the details on the Delivery specifications as to the discrimination between Standard or Option. spindle and coolant also stop.) To restart, press the CYCLE START key. How...

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    M code Mi9 M23 M24 M25 2) Machined work number check by preset type work Function Spindle Positioning Chamfering ON (automatic thread chamfering) Chamfering OFF Tailstock advance Description The spindle can be positione at the one point. This code perfotms automatic thread chamfering during a thr...

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    20-120 - 355min" 120-821 -2000min-' 20-120 - 414min.' measuring arm OUT

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    Anti-swing arm returns. etract the unloa he pressure of spindle chuck shift to high side. I M82 Robot service 2 Robot start 2

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    ecomes effective. MI22 MI23 MI24 MI 25 Air blow in spindle ON Air blow in spindle OFF Turret air blow ON Turret air blow OFF program. If specified in the main program, the program returns to its top. Air is blown from inside spindle Air blow from inside spindle stops. Air is blown from turret. Ai...

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    Example of Subprogram Call (Example) Main Program Subprogram Note I) Another subprogram can be called from one subprogram. Although the example above calls subprograms doubly, they can be call quadruply at most. 2) One call command can repeatedly call the subprogram for 99999999 times running. 3)...

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    2-3 Details of G Function 2-3-1 List of G Function (SEICOS- C 10U20L) Please refer to the details on the Delivery specifications as to the discrimination between Standard or Option. Group ( G code I Function GOO I Positioning (Rapid traverse) 01 .. I ~10 I Data setting GO1 I Linear interpolation...

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    05 22 k~97 G98 r~99 GI 20 GI21 Constant surface speed control cancel Feed per minute (rnmlmin) Feed per rotation (rnm-') Polar coordinate interpolation mode cancel Polar coordinate interpolation mode

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    Note 1) When the source power is switched on, those G codes marked are set. 2) G codes of 00 group indicate those which are not modal, and are effective to the blocks indicated. 3) When G codes which are not listed in G Code List are commanded, alarm is displayed, and when G codes which don't hav...

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    2-3-2 G50 Maximum Spindle Speed Setting Using a command "G50 S ....... ;" , you can directly specify the upper limit value of a spindle speed (min-') with a Cdigit numerical value following an address S. When a S beyond the upper limit has commanded after this command, it is clamped at ...

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    After one of 2 axes (X and Z) has completed its move, the other one moves to a specified point. The tool does not move linearly as shown with a dotted line in the left figure. to the . . When moving the tool to the next cutting position, do so at a rapid traverse rat e after retreating it by abou...

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    2-3-4 GO1 Linear Cutting (1) Specify this G code when performing linear cutting (ordinary cutting). Chamfering and taper cutting are also considered linear cutting. Use an F code to specrfy a feeding rate. k. The end point of a previous block becomes the start point- of the next block. X and W (o...

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    (2) Chamfering, corner R command When there is chamfering (45"chambering) or corner R (quarter circle) between 2 blocks which are parallel with the X or Z and cross with each other at a right angle, specify as follows: - (a) GO1 X ... K ... F ... (c) GO1 X... R... F... (b) GO1 Z ... I ... F ...

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    (3) Angle designated linear interpolation The angle designated linear interpolation can be performed by designating the angle A formed by the X or Z axes and +Z-axis. Gal{: ;) } A......~......; The range of the angle is -360.0 5A2360.0 (deg). CCW angle from f Z-axis is regarded as plus and the CW...

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    (Example 1) When moving from the point A to the point B GO2 X60.0 ZO R20.0 F...; When moving from the point B to the point A GO3 X1OO.O 2-20.0 R20.0 F...; (Example 2) When moving from the point A to the point B GO3 X60.0 ZO R20.0 F...; When moving from the point B to the point A GO2 X1OO.O 2-20.0...

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    (Example 4) When moving from the point A to the point B GO3 X60.0 ZO R50.0 F...; When moving from the point B to the point A A02 X80.0 Z-10.0 R50.0 F...; 680 060 (Example 5) When moving from the point A to the point B GO3 X45.0 2-35.9 R25.0 F...; When moving from the point B to the point A GO2 XO...

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    0 Circular command exceedinq 180" When specifying a circular arc exceeding 180°, give a minus sign such as R-AA.nn. When moving from the point A to the point €3 GO3 X30.0 Z-62.5 R-25.0 F...; When moving from the point B to the point A GO2 X30.0 2-17.5 R-25.0 F...; d51.8 7.0 Cutting feed r...

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    2-3-6 GO4 Dwell A tool can be rested during a command time. (Example) When stopping the tool for 2 seconds GO4 U2.0; In order to stabilize the diameter of the groove shown in the left figure, it is necessary to dwell the tool for 1 revolution or more at the bottom of the groove. Assuming the spin...

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    2-3-8 G61 Exact Stop The machine is decelerated to stop at the end point until G62, G63 and G64 etc. are commanded after commanding G61, and the next block is executed after checking that the position of the machine is within the range commanded. Program example G61 mode effective : An edge is cr...

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    (3) Wear offset amount input GlO L11 P- X (U)- Z (W)- R- H-; L11 : Wear offset amount input designation P : Offset NO. (0 - Maximum offset sets) X (U) : Wear offset amount of X-axis Z (W): Wear offset amount of Z-axis R : Tool nose R (Absolute) H : Tool width (Absolute) Note I) Only when absolute...

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    2-3-1 1 G22, G23 Stored Stroke Limit This machine is provided the stored stroke limit, which can be set the entering prohibition of tool in the movable area (Within the machine stroke) of the machine for safety operation by whether automatic or manual operation, as standard feature. This function...

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    A prohibited area can be selected by the parameter No.1300 to close which side of in or outside of a frame determined by the points C, D and E, F. (~0.1300 - bit 0 1 ln case of 0 I Inside of stroke limlt 2 is a prohibited area I (2) Settinar and c- (First bit from right) Note) Setting units 0.001...

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    (3) S.&hJ of the second or third stroke limit by MDI or program Example: G22 X-170.0 2-10.0 1-490.0 K-120.0 (Refer to the sketch on the previous page.) Command of entering prohibition into the second stroke limit and the second or third stroke limit is set. Example: G23; Entering is possible...

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    2-3-1 2 Stroke Limit Check Before Move If the end point of the block to be executed the automatic operation locates in the prohibited area, stop the axis travel and make an alarm. Execute a check regarding all effective matters by the stroke limit 1, 2 and 3. / , Interrupt a travel if the end poi...

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    2-3-1 3 G27 Reference Point Return Check The G27 command positions to the designated position by a program then check the position whether it is the first reference point or not and it becomes alarm if it is not. (1) Form of Command G27 X- Z- ..... ; (2) Program example Move to the X-axis 100.0 a...

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    2-3-1 4 G28 Automatic Reference Point Return With a command "G28 X (U) O0,O Z (W) DO 0.00", the tool automatically returns to the machine reference point after moving to the position (intermediate point) specified with X (U), Z (W). G28 assumes the same rapid traverse rate as GOO. After...

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    Program example A program example at left uses the 2nd reference point (G30) as the turret index position. N2 G28 WO TO1 00 A setting of the 2nd reference point execute on the 2nd N3 G50 S1500 reference point setting screen after the turret with maximum protruded tool is moved the position (B poi...

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    If the 2nd reference point is used correctly, it makes the safest program. However, when the turret head index position (2nd reference point) is altered due to a process change or preparatory plan change, set the second reference point again each time. Note 1) Before specrfying G30, perform autom...

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    2-3-1 6 G31 Skip Function If the skip signal is entered from the outside while linear interpolation is executed by G31 command, the travel is stopped, the remaining travel amount is left and the next block is proceeded. (1) Form of command G31 X- Z- . . . F- ; (2) Program example N1 G98 G31 W50. ...

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    2-3-1 7 G54 Work Coordinate System Setting (Work Length) Work length shall be set as the value following address Z by the command G54 Z Correct distance is displayed of the tool position from the machine origin by following ~rocedures. 1. When tool is indexed by T code in program (available by MD...

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    2-3-1 8 Canned Cycle Using a canned cycle, machine functioning equivalent to 4 blocks of "cutting-in -' cutting (or threading) + retreat -' return" in a regular program can be specified as 1 cycle in 1 block. D -------- A X 65.0 The tool starts from the point A (X65.0, 22.0) Z 2.0 and r...

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    - (1) Straight cutting (2) Taper cutting G90 X...Z...F...; (I=O) R : Rapid traverse F : Cutting feed (specified with an F code) Start point Start point D 4 ---------- *A D 4 --------- , (R) 1 (R) -6* 1 start position I I 11 G90 X...Z...I...F...; (Pay attention to a sign of I. ) I I1 When machinin...

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    In the above-mentioned program, the tool returns to the same start point after completing each cycle. At that time, a machining time is wasted because the same parts are repeatedly machined in side cutting as shown in the figure below. Therefore, the machining time can be saved by shifting the cy...

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    G90 Cycle Patterns (OD) Straight Taper - D D r---- .value) G90 X ...... 2. ..... D B 090 ..... ...... The sign (+, -) of I is determined as a direction Gg0 % ..... Z ...... I (-) ...... (2) (Radius value) 1 Ggo x. ..... 2. ..... 1 (-) ...... (3) D Gg0 X ...... Z ...... 1 ...... (4) (Radius value)...

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    G90 Cycle Patterns (ID) The sign (+, -) of I is determined as a direction viewing the point B from the point C. For cutting diameter, specify a dimension at the point C. Straight (1) (2) A Taper (1) (2) (Radius value) *---- 1 I=-

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    2. G94 End face and side cutting cycle G94 enables straightltaper cutting of the end face and side. The tool moves via a specified point from its start point, cuts the workpiece at a feed rate specified with an F code and returns to the start point. =udumms (1) Straight cutting Rapid traverse Cut...

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    Note 1) Since G94 is modal, speciv it just once. You do not have to specify it again thereafter. Accordingly, cycle operation is executed by only giving Z-mis depth of cut from the next block on. 2) After completing the canned cycle, cancel G94 with another G code, such as GOO, belonging to the s...

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    G94 Cycle Patterns (OD) Straight - Taper (1) --- c n ~94 *. ..... 2 .... G94 X. ..... z..... K (-) ...... (2) Ex (2) Gg', *. ..... ..." I I I C ..... ...... ..... K K. (3) ---9" I C ..... ...... (4) C 694 X ...... ...... K (-) ...... -

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    G94 Cycle Patterns (ID) I Straight Taper

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    2-3-1 9 G70, G71, G72, G73, G74, G75 Compound Repetitive Cycle (Option) A canned cycle with G90, G92 or G94 cannot simplify the program sufficiently. However, if you use a multiple repetitive cycle, the program can be greatly reduced by specifying a finish shape, such as enabling roughing and fin...

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    First, the tool cuts in parallel to its Z axis with the depth of cut Ad, and finally, it cuts in parallel to the tape command. Create the tape command as follows: (ns) G71 P- (n9 Q- Ut- - Wi - Ii- Kt- D- F- S-; Rough finishing cycle is omitted when the 4 bit = 1 of the parameter No.5102. (ns) (or...

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    The following 4 patterns are likely as to a profile to be cut with G71. In any case, the workpiece is cut by tool movements in parallel with the Z axis of the tool. Signs of 4 U and 4 W are as follows: The nose R compensation is not engaged in the type I of G71. U(+)...W(-) .. Both linear and cir...

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    (2) Type 11 Type JI differs from type I in the following points. (i) The shape is not necessary to be simple increase in X direction and it may have as many pockets as possible. The first block of finishing shape requires movement of Z-axis. However, Z direction must be simple change. The followi...

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    (iv) The cutting path becomes as the following example. Between A and A' is commanded in the block with sequence No. (ns) and should be included the Z-axis command. Even if no movement on Z-axis, command WO. When moving amount of Z-axis is zero between A and A', cutting along with A and A' become...

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    (b) Execution of rough cutting finishing Cycle At the last part of this cycle, cutting is performed along the shape, leaving the finishing allowance. By commanding I and K in the same block as G71, rough cutting is done, leaving the allowance specified in I and K, and finally cutting along the sh...

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    (1) Type 1 The following 4 patterns are likely as to a profile to be cut with G72. In any case, the workpiece is cut by repeating tool movements in parallel with the X axis of the tool. Signs of 4 U and 4 W are as follows: Tool movement between A and A' is commanded by the block of sequence No. &...

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    3. G73 Closed loop cutting cycle (Option) This G code can repeat afixed cutting pattern, shifting a tool position little by little. With this cycle used, you can efficiently cut a workpiece whose material shape has been made in pre-machining such as forging or casting. Pattern Specified by Tape P...

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    - When the cycle is completed, the tool returns to a start point at a rapid traverse rate. For NC command data, a block next to the G70 cycle is read. . A subprogram cannot be called between the sequence No. "ns" and "nf" used for G70wG73. The memory addresses stored by the r...

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    NlOO (FA-R) Nl01 T0100; N102 G97 5220 MOB; N103 GOO XI 76.0 22.0 M03; N104 G96 S120; N105 G72 PI06 Ql 1 1 U2.0 W0.5 D2.0 F0.3; N106 GOO 2-70.0 F0.15; N107 GO1 X120.0 Z-60.0; NlO8 2-50.0 ; N109 X80.0 2-40.0; NllO 2-20.0; Nlll X36.0 22.0; N112 GOO G97 X200.0 2150.0 S500; N114 MOl :

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    Proaram Example of Compound Canned Cycle (G71 Tvpe NO1 0 T0300; NO1 1 G97 S1650 M08; NO1 2 GOO X60.0 2-1 5.0 M03; NO1 3 G71 PO1 4 Q018 U0.5 D5.0 F0.3; NO14 GO1 X40.0 WO F0.15; NO15 GO2 2-55.0 R25.0; NO1 6 2-95.0 R25.0; NO1 7 2-135.0 R25.0; NO18 GO1 X60.0 The tool nose radius for offset No. 03 sha...

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    . . ltlve Cycle a N101 TO100 t ,. r. : .\ i: : N102 G97 S200 M08; .',C...,"% . <:! , ;:. '%. N103 GOO X140.0 240.0 M03; . ,.,,.. ,2' ;:-' " N104 G96 S120; . L~. N105 G73 PI06 Q112 19.5 K9.5 Ul.O W0.5 D3 F0.3; N106 GOO X20.0 ZO; N107 GO1 2-20.0; F0.15 S150; N108 X40.0 2-30.0; N109 2-5...

  • Page 108

    5. G74 End face cutting-off cycle By this command, chip disposal in end face cutting-off can be functioned. Also, if X(U) and I are omitted, peck drilling cycle in Z axis direction is effected. ------------- ----- C& C> -> -> jJ __L I --* (GOO) (Z,X, I 1 G74 X(U)- Z(W)- 1- K- D- F- R...

  • Page 109

    . . of ~eck cvcle (G741 In case of peck drilling cycle, omit I and D. / / /I / IR) +- ------------- ------- -- N203 GOO XO Z5.0 M03; 1 u /(~lli?] {R \x? Lfi (F) 2 iF) N204 G74 2-80.0 K20.0 F0.15; I 8 0 N205 GOO X200.0 21 00.0; 6. Outside diameter cutting-off cycle By the command, chip disposal in...

  • Page 110

    N1103 GOO X35.0 Z-50.0 M03; N1104 G96 S80; N1105 G75X-1.0 15.0, F0.15; N1106 GOO G97 X200.0 2200.0 S500; Precautions for Multiple Repetitive Cycles(G70-G76) (1) In the blocks where multiple repetitive cycles are to be specified, you must correctly specify necessary parameters, such as P, Q, X, 2,...

  • Page 111

    2-3-20 G32, G92, G76 Thread Cutting A G32 command enables straighfftaperlface thread cutting and tapping, and G92 and G76 (option) commands enable straighthaper-thread cutting. Threading code and lead programmable range Specify a lead with a numerical value following F. Lead range cycle for threa...

  • Page 112

    1. Cutting the single thread screw I 2. Cutting the multiple thread screw -.-I thread w Important Formulas for Thread For a single thread screw, cut at a threading feed rate of P mmlrev from an arbitrary position by 6 or more away from the end face of a thread part. Cut the first thread of a doub...

  • Page 113

    When cutting the thread from the point A to the point B, it causes shorter leads(pitches) of 6, and 6, at the cutting start point A due to acceleration and at the cutting end point B due to deceleration, respectively. Therefore, when obtaining an effective thread length " 1 ", a threadi...

  • Page 114

    Thread Cutting Method m . (1) The following shows formulas used for calculating reference thread shapes for metric coarselfine and unified coarselfine threads: <Unified coarse and fine threads> P = 25.411-1 n H = 0.866025lnX25.4 z e - Hl = 0.541266lnX25.4 - <Metric coarse and fine thread...

  • Page 115

    You must determine a depth of cut, depending on the nose R of a tip used. As shown in the right figure, assuming a relief amount to be 6 and a relief cutting part to be an arc (nose R); 1 1 6= - H-R= - P ~0~30" - R .......... 4 4 external thread 1 1 6= - H-R= - P ~0~30" - R 8 8 internal...

  • Page 116

    - / mmm ewe XZX -- / NNO ",ah, XZX -- / m w 9 0 -- / s a -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -

  • Page 117

    When Cutting Straight (External Thread) When Cutting Along Helicoidal Surface (External Thread) When Cutting Straight (Internal Thread) When Cutting Along Helicoidal Surface (Internal Thread)

  • Page 118

    When Cutting Zigzag (External Thread) When Cutting Zigzag (Internal Thread)

  • Page 119

    Thread chamfering Automatic thread chambering is enabled in G92 and G76 threading cycles. 1. M functions for chambering selection M23 ..... chambering ON (chamfering performed) M24 ..... chambering OFF Details of thread chamfering Details of thread chamfering A range of chambering value r of thre...

  • Page 120

    1. G32 Threading The tool cuts a thread at a feed rate (pitch or lead) specified with F or E as far as a position of X... Z... in the block where G32 was specified. G32 does not allow cycle operation. Therefore, blocks before and after threading require programs for cutting retreat and return. 0 ...

  • Page 121

    o For the threading depth and number of threading times, refer to the number of threading list. o U... and W... within parentheses specify strokes (incremental programming) from a threading start point to an end point. Although either programming (incremental or absolute) will do, note that comma...

  • Page 122

    (3) ExamDle of face threW Program example for face threading shown in the left figure, with each depth of cut set to 0.5 rnm. N301 TO300 ~106.0 N302 G97 S300 M08 z 20.0 \ N303 GOO XI 06.0 220.0 M03 N304 2-0.5 N305 G32 X67.0 F4.0 ...( U-39.0)) N306 GOO X20.0 XI 06.0 N308 2-1 .O X309 G32 X67.0 ...(...

  • Page 123

    2. G32 Tapping When a tap feed rate (pitch, lead) is specified with G01, if the FEEDRATE OVERRIDE switch on the operation panel is not set to loo%, the feed rate (pitch, lead) specified in the program cannot be obtained because of its change. To avoid this, if you specify tapping with G32, machin...

  • Page 124

    3. G92 Threading Cycle From a threading start point, four actions of cutting-in, threading, retreat and return to the start point can be specified in one block as one cycle. (1) Straight thread (2) Taper thread D (R) A r---- Stati point j (R) 0 An incomplete thread part R : Rapid traverse is incl...

  • Page 125

    (1) v Program example for M45-PI .5 threading (left figure) N901 TO900 X55.0 27.0 N902 G97 S565 M08 Y N903 GOO X55.0 27.0 M03 lrN904 M23 N905 G92 X44.45 2-1 5.0 F1.5 N906 X43.97 15.0 N907 X43.74 chambering (Automatic N908 X43.54 thread X909 X43.37 chambering) Fig' a N910 X43.22 N911 X43.18 f N912...

  • Page 126

    Start point Start point Fig. a I/'%5.0 Fig. b vX55.0 I------- 1 z5,0 f- --c - t---- 25.0 I t I 1 ____2__ I 35.0 -w 8 chambering -+ When cutting a taper thread as shown in the left figure, obtain a size of I first. 45 - 40 I = = 2.5mm 2 Next, determine a sign (+, -) of I based on a cycle pattern. ...

  • Page 127

    0 Specify the dimension of the point C as to a cutting diameter dimension. o The program example on a preceding page executes chambering as shown in Fig. a. 0 When chambering is not required as shown in Fig. b, delete blocks marked with "*" (N904 and N913). (Refer to the preceding page....

  • Page 128

    G92 Cvcles Straight thread Taper thread I

  • Page 129

    G92 Cycles Straight thread Taper thread

  • Page 130

    Note) 1. A lead becomes inaccurate with a constant surface speed applied. Be sure to cut a thread with G97. 2. A cutting feed rate override is always fixed at 100%. 3. If & G92 threading cycle is performed in the single block mode, the tool will return to its start point and stop there after ...

  • Page 131

    4. G76 Thread cutting cycle A thread cycle shown in the figure below is performed by the following command: G76 X (u) *-Z (w) *- I*-K-D (H)-F-A-P-Q-; I : When the radius of the thread portion is even, the value of "I" = 0, then straight thread iscut. (44 K : Height of thread (The distan...

  • Page 132

    Cutting method (1) Constant cutting amount, single edge (PI designation) In H command, the cutting is completed with the process of H times. / Cuttings are repeated the Parameter N0.6216 number of times as set by (In case of I st cutting amount <g) Parameter No.5129. (Finishing) I st cutting a...

  • Page 133

    (2) Constant cutting amount, Staggered cutting (P2 designation) J2 . ............... I st cutting amount 4 d - 2 In H command, the cuttingis completed with the process of H times. cuttings are repeated the number of times as set by Parameter No.5129. 2nd cutting amount ............. .A dJ2 (Finis...

  • Page 134

    (4) Constant cutting amount, Staggered cutting (P4 designation) In H command, the cutting is completed with the process of H times. ~utth~s are repeated the number of times as set by Parameter No.5129. (Finishing) 1 st cutting amount ............... 4 d 2nd cutting amount .............. Ad . 2 . ...

  • Page 135

    2-3-21 Continuous Thread Cutting Continuous thread cutting in which thread cutting blocks are continuously commanded is available. As it is controlled so that synchronism with the spindle will be shifted minimumly at a joint of blocks, it is possible to cut a special thread whose lead or shape ch...

  • Page 136

    2-3-23 Multi-thread Cutting (Option) Cutting of multiple thread is performed by synchronous feed of starting pulse from the spindle plus generator and start the other thread from the spindle rotate by designated degree after starting pulse. Command G32 X(U) .... Z(W) .... F .... Q .... ; G92 X(U)...

  • Page 137

    2-3-24 GI 50, GI 51, GI 52 Groove Width Compensation Groove width compensation is changing the tool point by shifting the coordinate system to the amount of tool width through reading the data of tool width and tool point in the tool layout screen by command of G151. (Shift to the amount of tool ...

  • Page 138

    (Example 1) In case of OD grooving tool (tool nose point 3) Tool width 6.0 The coordinate system of the Z-axis is shied by the tool width amount. The tool nose point is shifted internally from 3 to 4. Coordinate system changes (Example 2) In case of end groovinc tool (tool nose point 2) Tool widt...

  • Page 139

    The coordinate system of the X-axis is shifted by tool width GI51 ON x 2. 0 U il O I:, N The tool nose point is shifted DIST m oo 40.000 x TEE? x a,, internally from 2 to 3. z 20.888 2 0.m Note 1) Except when the tip point is at 1-4, alarm is produced. Coordinate system changes 2) With G151/G 152...

  • Page 140

    3-1 Outline 3. AUTOMATIC CALCULATING FUNCTION OF TOOL NOSE RADIUS COMPENSATION Normally, a tool nose is programmed as one point. However, an actual tool has nose R. Although it can be ignored when cutting in parallel to axes, such as an end face, outer diameter and inner diameter, when chambering...

  • Page 141

    to right Compensation to len compensation to left 3-2 Preparation to Execute the Automatic Calculating Function of Tool Nose Radius Compensation The following setting is required to do a nose R compensation. These are set in the tool offset screen. 1. Tool tip point (refer to the lower sketch) .....

  • Page 142

    3-3 Three Conditions of Nose Radius Compensation When performing tool nose radius compensation, its program starts from a tool nose radius compensation cancel state and proceeds to a tool nose radius compensation state via a start- up state, and then, it returns to the initial compensation cancel...

  • Page 143

    3-3-1 Tool Nose Radius Compensation Block (During Cutting) A tool nose radius compensating method during cutting is determined by the tool nose point and a tool nose moving direction. A list is given below. Compensating direction by tool nose point and tool nose moving direction Workpiece Compens...

  • Page 144

    b) When the tangent angle is 1 80°, the tool nose center comes on the normal of a command point. c) Do not command a wedge shape with an obtuse angle In case of the path A -+ B -+ C is commanded by G01, a tool tip does not move further than condition @ even a command of point 8.

  • Page 145

    3-3-2 Start-up Block and Compensation Cancel Block (ApproachIRetreat) Concretely, the start-up block and compensation cancel block refer to blocks changing over from GOO to GO1 (approach) and GO1 to GOO (retreat). How to determine the compensating direction in approachinglretreating X a i) When a...

  • Page 146

    a Determine a virtual line direction in the same direction as the compensating direction of the moving axis (+X side because the compensating direction is to the right). 1 Compensating direc- tion lo right +X side I @ Determine the compensating direction of the virtual line, and then, the interse...

  • Page 147

    %@ Since the compensating direction of the virtual line cannot be determined, assume it in the same direction as the compensating direction of the moving axis. Assume the compensating direction in the same .direction (to the right). Example 3) A. For the tool nose point 3 tine parallel @( tozaxis...

  • Page 148

    D. For the tool nose point in approaching to an arc and retreating GOO. Tool nose point 3 Virtual line (parallel to the X axis) 1 Tangent (parallel to the Z ads) When commanding either of the following modes in the status of compensation currently the compensation is canceled. @Axial travel is pe...

  • Page 149

    3-4 Caution Point of Approach to Workpiece Virtual line in parallel with X-axis f I,,/---$ Cutling feed with GO1 'n when this mgle feed vdlh GO1 is 45' or less _-* -- - I Uncut part Virtual line when approach- ing the point A Virtual line in parallel with z-axis I . program point (z-axis) C___4_ ...

  • Page 150

    3-5 Tool Nose Radius Compensation to Direct Designation G Code (GI 41, G1 42) In indenting, there is no particular problem for finishing. In roughing, however, specify a compensation direction with the following G codes: G141 Tool nose radius compensation direction to left GI42 Tool nose radius c...

  • Page 151

    In Example I, the command @ moves the tool in a direction of " I. ", the compensation direction is specified to the left, assuming this as end facing. For the command @, as the compensation direction follows the previous block because this command moves the tool in a direction of "...

  • Page 152

    1 4. PROGRAM EXAMPLE (NC PROGRAM) 11 4-1 Chuck Work 4-1 -1 Machining Drawing EXAMPLE USEIKI, CNC LATHE PROCESS : 2ND NC UNIT TOOL LAYOUT SHEET PART NAME MATERIAL S48C

  • Page 153

    4-1 -2 Chuck Work Program N118 GOO X200.0 2200.0 N119 M01 Programming 00052 N1 G28 UO N2 G28 WO TO1 00 N3 G50 S2000 N4 GOO X200.0 2200.0 N5 M01 N101 TO100 N102 G97 S350 M08 N103 GOO XI 10.0 210.0 M03 N104 GO1 G96 20.2 F3.0 S1.20 N 105 X45.0 F0.2 N106 23.0 N107 GOO G97 X93.0 S400 N108 GO1 2-17.8 F...

  • Page 154

    N403 GOO X54.6 21 0.0 M03 - N404 23.0 N405 GO1 2-27.0 F0.4 N406 X53.0 N407 GOO 23.0 N408 X69.2 N409 GO1 X59.6 2-1.8 F0.3 N4lO 2-1 4.8 FO 4 , . . . - - . . . - . - . . N411 X53.0 N412 GOO 210.0 N413 X260.0 21 00.0 N414 M01 2. TO4 (ID roughing) tool nose route

  • Page 155

    N701 TO700 N702 G97 S1100 M08 N703 GOO X58.0 21 0.0 M03 N704 GO1 G96 ZO F1.5 S200 N705 X70.0 F0.2 N706 X78.0 2-4.0 N707 X83.0 N708 X85.0 2-5.0 N709 Z-15.0 N710 GO2 X91.0 2-18.0 R3.0 FO. N711 GO1 X94.0 N712 X97.0 2-1 9.5 N713 X1OO.O 3. TO7 (OD end face finishing) tool nose ro&

  • Page 156

    N801 TO800 N802 G97 S1000 M08 N803 GOO X70.0 21 0.0 M03 N804 GO1 G96 23.0 F1.5 S200 N805 X60.0 2-2.0 F0.2 N806 Z-15.0 F0.15 N807 X57.0 F0.2 N808 X55.0 Z-16.0 N809 2-27.0 N810 X53.0 N81 I GOO Z1O.O M09 Automatic reference point return (X and 2 axes) Program end & rewind Be sure insert a stop c...

  • Page 157

  • Page 158

    4-2-2 Center Work Program N1 G28 UO N2 G28 WO TO300 N3 G50 S2000 N4 GOO X200.0 210.0 N5 M01 OD roughing N301 TO300 N302 G97 S635 M08 N303 GOO 22.0 M03 N304 ZX65.0 N305 G96 S130 N306 X52.0 N307 GO1 2-1 39.1 F0.4 N308 X56.4 2-1 40.8 X309 2-241.8 N310 X63.0 N311 GOO 22.0 N312 X46.0 N313 GO1 2-89.8 F...

  • Page 159

    N326 X37.4 N327 X42.4 2-42.3 N328 GOO X50.0 N329 G97 X200.0 Z1O.O S825 N330 MOl OD finishing N701 TO700 N702 G97 S1350 M08 N703 GOO X210.0 22.0 M03 N704 X40.0 N705 G96 S170 N706 X29.0 N707 GO1 X35.0 Z-1.0 F0.15 N708 2-40.0 N709 X37.0 N710 X40.0 2-41.5 N711 Z-90.0 N712 X50.0 2-98.66 N713 Z-140.0 F...

  • Page 160

    I BAR WORK U(AMPLE I PROCESS : NC UNIT BsEIKI, CNC LATHE TOOL LAYOUT SHEET T 1 DO8 OD end facting T 2 T s T6 T 3 T4 'r 7 T8 T 9 *4mm T 10 Stopper :

  • Page 161

    4-3-2 Bar Work Program I 0005 N1 G28 UO N2 G28 WO TI 000 N3 G50 52000 N4 GOO X200.0 2200.0 N5 M01 Material sizing NlOOl Tl 000 N1002 G97 S200 N1003 GOO XO Z1O.O M03 N1004 GO1 2-33.0 F5.0 Nl005 M69 N1006 GO4 U2.0 N1007 GO1 Zl.O F5.0 N1008 M68 N1009 GO4 U3.0 N1010 GOO 21 0.0 N1011 X200.0 2200.0 N10...

  • Page 162

    Nil2 2-36.0 N113 X34.4 2-38.0 N114 GOO X40.0 N115 23.0 N122 GOO X40.0 N123 G97 X200.0 2200.0 S955 N124 M01 OD finishing N903 M63 I Unloader advance Cutting-off N901 TO900 N904 GO4 U1.O N905 GOO X45.0 2-25.0 M03 N906 GO1 X40.0 2-34.0 F2.0 Selecting the turret face No.9 N907 G96 X-0.5 FO.l SlOO N90...

  • Page 163

    4-4 Grooving 4-4-1 OD Grooving N503 GI 50 I Groove width offset OFF Programming N501 TO500 N504 GOO X87.0 Z1O.O M03 N505 GO1 G96 2-12.0 F5.0 SlOO Description N0.5 turret face calling A-B N506 X75.2 FO.l I C-D N508 2-15.0 D-E N509 X83.0 2-13.0 FO.l E-F N510 X75.0 F-G N511 2-12.9 G-H N512 X87.0 F5....

  • Page 164

    1. TO5 (OD grooving) Tool width : 3mm .-- He ----- k P Turn on groove width offset before 1 1 I rnovlng horn H to I. B L K G (a)Groove width offset OFF state (b) Groove width offset ON state Tool nose pomt: 3 (GI 52) Nose R : 0.2 Nose width : 0.3 Nose w~dth : Non 4-4-2 ID Grooving N603 GI 50 N604...

  • Page 165

    H+I N614 2-6.3 I +J N615 X80.4 2-7.0 J -K N616 X86.0 FO.l K-L N617 2-7.2 L -M N618 X78.0 F1.O N619 GOO Z1O.O N620 GI50 N621 GOO G97 X260.0 21 00.0 S400 N622 M01 Groove width offset ON. Change to a program point "b" Groove width offset OFF (a) Groove width offset OFF state Tool nose poin...

  • Page 166

    4-4-3 End Face Grooving Programming N301 TO300 N302 G97 S330 M08 N303 GI 50 N304 GOO X97.0 Z1O.O M03 A+B N305 GO1 Z1.O F8.0 B+C N306 2-4.0 FO.l C+D N307 20.5 Fl .O D+E N308 X94.6 E+F N309 X96.0 20.2 FO.l F+G N310 2-4.0 G+H N311 X96.5 H+I N312 20.5 F1 .O N313 GI51 I-J N314GOOX111.4 J +K N315 GO1 X...

  • Page 167

    4-5 1st and 2nd Process Continuous Machining Method One example for programming method of consecutive machining as process 1st and 2nd is introduced as follows: T9 TI 0 TI mJD ODroughing T2 T5 T6 T3 T4 T7 OD finishing YD T8

  • Page 168

    4-5-1 Machining Method by Single Program 01 11 1 (1st process) N1 G28 UO N2 G28 WO TO100 ,---I Reference point N3 054 ZO % shift cancel. N4 G50 S1800 N5 GOO X200.0 2175.0 N6 M01 NlOO (OD-R) N101 TO100 N102 G97 S545 N103 GOO X70.0 Z1O.O M03 N104 GO1 Z0.2 F1.5 M08 MI05 G96 X-1.2 F0.2 5120 I N106 .....

  • Page 169

    4-5-2 Machining Method by Subprogram Calling Executing method of continuous machining when call subprogram by main program. 1st and 2nd process machining program are stored separately as subprograms. * * * Main program * * * 02222 Refer to Fig. 1. (OP-I) N1 M98 PO001 . . . . . For calling 1 st pr...

  • Page 170

    4-6 Operation Example of Many Short Length Works 01 I 11 (Main program) N1 G28 UO N2 628 WO Operation starting N3 GI0 PO0 2200.0 a point N4 TI000 N5 G50 S2000 N6 GOO X200.0 250.0 N7 M01 NIOOO TI000 M40 N1001 GOO 21.0 N1002 XO Positioning of N1003 MOO 4 works (manual) machine original point LL -T ...

  • Page 171

    5. REFERENCE MATERIALS 5-1 How to Calculate the Tool Nose Radius Compensation Amount Without Using the Tool Nose Radius Compensation Function At the normal program, since it becomes a program which is a program point coincide a point on the drawing if nose R compensation function is used, prepara...

  • Page 172

    c3 Tool nose p / TOO, nose point I 1 1=/2 - i /I Tool nose point 2. Calculating procedure of tool nose position 1. Calculate the coordinate values of the intersecting points of a straight line and those of the center of a circular are. (in the above-mentioned figure, coordinate values of the poin...

  • Page 173

    3. How to obtain tool nose radius compensation amount in chamfering and taper cutting To prevent insufficient cutting, calculate the tool nose radius compensation amount (fx, 12) out of an angle and a nose R size, and shift the tool by the amount when programming. Although the following tool path...

  • Page 174

    fx 1 0.383 1 0.765 1 0.956 1 1.530 1 1.913 1 2.295 1 3.060 1 b 1 0.017 1 0.033 1 0.042 1 0.067 1 0.084 1 0.100 1 0.134 The case (e) and (9 on the previous page are excluded. Tool nose R (radius) 0,2 0.4 0.5 1 .O 0.8 1.2 1.6

  • Page 175

    4. Example of tool nose radius compensation amount calculation in chamfering and taper cutting - Example 1 1 When the tool is located at the positions A and B in the above figure, the tool nose radius compensation amount (fx, fz) is obtained as follows. (However, the nose radius of a tool used sh...

  • Page 176

    (2) Tool nose R compensation amount (fx, fz) (3) X and Z coordinate value of tool nose point Tool nose omt posttlon of the . . tool A X = b30-fx = 30-0.676 Coordinate value Tool nose p-osition of the tool R z = P-fi - - - 25.98- 0.5856 Coordinate value - - - 26.5656 X60.0 - - . -26.57 2-26.57 (4)...

  • Page 177

    5. How to obtain tool nose radius compensation amount in circular cutting (1) Program example without considering tool nose R compensation amount In circular cutting, a tool cuts a workpiece along its circular are "r" with the nose R being in contact with the arc. Concav &circula, a...

  • Page 178

    - - GO1 Z-50.0 F0.2 GO1 X50.0 F0.2 X88.0 4 A Z-60.0 - C GO3 XIOO.O 2-56.0 R6.0 + B GO2 X62.0 Z-66.0 R6.0 + D GOI z-aa. a GOI xnn. a Since the virtual tool nose point (program point) is different from a cutting edge position for actual cutting, insufficient cutting is caused by the programs for Ex...

  • Page 179

    (2) Program example with considering tool nose R compensation amount ~ool nose hb Tool nose jar.wlly cut :Example 4 ' Example 5 GO1 2-50.0 F0.2 GO1 X50.0 F0.2 X86.5 - a 2-60.8 - c GO3 XI 00.0 2-56.8 R6.8 - b GO2 X60.4 2-66.0 R5.2 - d GOI z-nn. n GQI xna. n

  • Page 180

    (3) When commanding the circular arc "r" by I and K instead of using R command a distance as far as the center of the circular arc "r", viewed from the center of the nose R at a circular cutting start point. I : Command an element in the X-axis direction in terms of radius val...

  • Page 181

    I & Side F - Bottom of the stream water mill stops. can be seen after a Formulas (for right triangle) A"+B"+C"=18o0 D Angle "A" and side "D" E = - D 1 s~nA tan A' I Side and angle given IAngle "A' and side 'Eu / D = Ex sinAo / F = E *- Formula obtaining...

  • Page 182

  • Page 183

    5-2-3 How to Obtain Taper and Intersecting Point of Circular Arc Obtain the command values of the start point (PI) and end point (P2) of the circular arc P, (End point) shown in the left figure. l? 5.0 (1) Obtain the taper angle " 9 " in the left figure. $110 10 Cutting ~11010 4 5 I I -...

  • Page 184

    (4) Divide the thus created fan shape into two (5) Obtain the length of the side "a". equally and obtain the angles " 4 " and " @ ". Circular Ira, .,- arc:center , .,, (6) The position of the end point (P,) of the circular arc is ; :. : :: ... Xof P2 = 3.09X2+@110=@1...

  • Page 185

    (8) To obtain the position of the circular arc start point, create another right triangle and obtain the lengths of the sides "b" and "c". Length of the side "b" (9) Based on the calculations on the left, obtain b = 5.OXcos (31.715"+31.715~ the position of the c...

  • Page 186

    Program the position of each intersecting point obtained by the above-mentioned calculations. ......... T M ......... G97 S M08 GOO X90.0 Z1O.O M03 ......... ......... GO1 G96 23.0 F S 2-25.0 F ......... - A X107.24 2-42.24 - PI GO2 XI 16.1 8 2-45.0 R5.0 t- P2 GO1 X .........

  • Page 187

    5-2-4 Others - Classification Spindle Feed Machining time Thread cutting ~i~~~~~~~ sur-face roughness power and depth - Remarks V. Cutting speed (mlmin) N. Spindle speed (rpm) n. Number ~(3.1416) D. Workpiece diameter (mm) F. Feed per revolution (mmlrev) f. Feed per minute (mmlmin) L. Total cutti...

  • Page 188

    6. SPECIFICATIONS OF C-AXIS CONTROL SElKI-SEICOS 221 L 6-1 Outline The spindle can be controlled by the feed motor. It enables the spindle to position precisely, and it enables X and Z axis, and the spindle to interpolate. The name of axis is called C-axis. This instruction manual describes the C...

  • Page 189

    17. Reference point return ............. G27: Reference point return check G28: Reference point return In the reference point return, rotating axis processing is performed. (The reference point return is completed within 360") G29: Return from the reference point 1 8. Feed per minuteJfeed .....

  • Page 190

    6-3 Program 6-3-1 Coordinate Axis The C-axis is included in the ordinary cutting coordinate system. Each coordinate axis and signs are defined as follows. As a matter of fact the Y-axis not exists, however, prepare a program as if imaginary Y-axis exists. 6-3-2 Plane Selection of G17, GI 8, GI 9 ...

  • Page 191

    6-3-3 Miscellaneous Function for Rotating Tool (M Code) In case of hole machining, you can use these codes to specify start, stop and reverse rotation of the tool. MI3 Rotating tool connection + Rotating tool forward rotation Mi4 Rotating tool connection + Rotating tool reverse rotation MI5 Rotat...

  • Page 192

    6-3-4 Fixed Cycle for Hole Making G80-G89, G831, G841, G861 With this function, machining cycle such as drilling, tapping or boring can be commanded by one block. Furthermore, in case of making the same hole repeatedly, just command hole position and it is very effective to simplify a program. (1...

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    (2) Machining cycle Machining cycle of fixed cycle consists of following motion [I] - [7] generally. n v Ill [I] Positioning to hole making position .------ -- >O 0 -- Initial point : + [2] Rapid traverse up to R point . . . . . . [3] Cutting feed to D point (Feedrate E) I21 : i m . . . . [4] ...

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    R and points are available both absolute and incremental command, however, D point is commanded by incremental always. [Absolute] [Incremental] Zero positions of hole making axis - . . - - -. R point - -. . - - -. . D point Zpointint I - Initial point 4 R point I - .----.. D point z 1 z point (No...

  • Page 195

    (5) Explanation of motion of fixed cycle In this explanation of motion of fixed cycle, positioning axis hole making position is X and hole making axis is Z. (a) G81 (Drilling, Spot drilling) 0:- D point 00 - z point (b) G82 (Drilling, Counter boring) m. initial point fe- R point 0; - D point 06 -...

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    (c) G83 (Deep hole drilling) [G 1981 [G 1991 (x) (x) .---. . . . .>o Initial point . - - - - - - - @ Initial point + R point D Doint C 0 - Z point Set a clearance amount Pr on the parameter No.6222. R point D point [G 1 981 [G 1991 M 0 ........ -,Q Initial point . - - -. -. - @ Initial point +...

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    0 ----...- y g - Initial point . . i l(m~) i (PP~) - R point 0 0 - Z point (Ppr) (REV) M .-.-.-.. +O - Initial point i (Ppr) . (FWD) 0 - R point - Z point (ppr) (REV) (FWD) : Forward rotation of tool (REV) : Reverse rotation of tool (Ppr) : Dwell (Parameter setting) (Note 1) A dwell by command P ...

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    (f) G86 (Boring) M (FWD) ......+p ? - Initial point (x) .-.-----+Q - Initial point . . . . . . . . . . . . R point 0- R point I I I 0 6 - z point Ob- Z mint (FWD) : Forward rotation of tool (STP) : Stop of tool (g) G88 (Boring) 0 (FWD) --------fl 0 - Initial point : " :: . . . . . . . . R po...

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    (h) G89 (Boring) - Initial point - R point - Z point (p) : Dwell [G 1 991 (x) ....-... *Q - Initial point R point (P) .-, .,.l . .' ,. < .

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    (i) (3831 (High speed deep hole drilling) [GI981 [GI991 M . -. . -. . . .@ Initial point (x) . . . . . . . -. ? 9 lnitial point + 0 1 R point 1 m 0 : D point + i OL Z point + 0 4 R point I D point . Z point Set a clearance amount Pr on the parameter No.6222. M M -...-.--a >O Initial point 9 In...

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    (j) G841 (Reverse tapping) M Initial point M -------" ? - -...-..., Q - Initial point . . i . i . (Ppr) i (Ppr). R point ' (REV) 11 - R point 0 1 (PP~) r Z point - Z point (Por) (FWD) : Forward rotation of tool (REV) : Reverse rotation of tool (Ppr) : Dwell (Parameter setting) (Note 1) A dwe...

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    (6) Precautions (1) When single block is ON, stop at the end point of motion [I] [2], [3] and [7]. In this case a feed hold lamp light at the end point of motion [I], [2], [3] and the end point of motion [7] if remain the number of times of repetition. A cycle motion between [4] and [6] other a t...

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    6-3-5 Program Example Example 1 : Drilling (Z-axis Rotating Tool) +10 (0.393 Drill - 4pcs. OMM G28 UO G28 WO ........................... GI8 X-Z plane designation l Turning 1 N600 ~0600 ~40 ....-............... 6th turret face selection Spindle low speed side selection C-axis connection release ....

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    GOO 22.0 ~50.0 ..................... C-axis incremental command GO1 2-40.0 GOO 22.0 M09 GOO X200.0 2200.0 Mo5.. ..... Return to index position + Rotating tool rotation stop ~28 HO ........................ C-axis zero return M45 ........................... Rotating tool connection release M01

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    Example 2: Drilling (X-axis Rotating Tool) (1) Z-axis drilling position shift C-axis simultaneous 60" turn - I

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    N400 TO400 M40 GI9 G23 .................................... G97 Sl00 M05 M43 .................................... G28 UO HO e............................ ~50~0 ................................. G98 S1270 M08 ........................ GOOX120,0Z7,0 MI3 .................a G198 .........................

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    Example 3: Drilling (Z-axis Rotating Tool) NlOOO (D6.5 - DRL) TI000 M40 ....................... (317.. X-Y plane designation ......................... M43 C-axis connection ..................... G28 HO C-axis zero return ..................... (350 co C-axis coordinate setting G97 S1500 M08 GOO X6...

  • Page 208

    Example 4: Drilling and Tapping (2-awis Rotating Tool) N400 (D4.2 - DRL) TO400 M40 8 GI7 M43 G28 HO G50 CO G97 S2000 M08 GOO X62.0 215.0 Mi3 =2;269HmQmmaenLsE2M GE!Q I No. of repeats (6 equal allocation) GOO 25.0 "ng[ LD!, Depth of cut G99 M40 R point GOO X200.0 2200.0 M05 M45 M01 N800 (M5 *...

  • Page 209

    Example 5: End-milling (Z-axis Rotating Tool) N200 (D1O.O - MIL) TO200 M40 GI7 M43 G28 HO G50 CO G97 S500 M08 GOO X80.0 25.0 C-15.0 Mi3 G98 GO1 Z1.O F3000 2-5.0 F25 C15.0 F50 GOO Z5.0 G99 M40 GOO X200.0 2200.0 M05 M45 M01

  • Page 210

    6-4 Polar Coordinate Interpolation Function 6-4-1 Polar Coordinate Function A workpiece can be machined into an arbitrary shape with the linear axis (X-axis) and rotary axis (C-axis). If GI21 is specified, polar coordinate interpolation is put into effect and a virtual coordinate system is set as...

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    (Note) 1. Command the GI20 or GI21 in the individual block. If it is not individual, it becomes an alarm. 2. A plane (any one of the G 17, G 18 or G 19) before the G 12 1 has commanded is cancelled once by a command of the GI21 and returns by a command of the G 120. 3. During a polar coordinate i...

  • Page 212

    6-4-3 Program Example (X-axis : Linear axis/C-axis : Rotating axis) N1 GOO XI 00.0 CO ; Positioning to the start point N2G121 ; Polar coordinate interpolation starts N3 G42 GO1 X60.0 F100 ; (Tool radius compensation right side) N4 C20.0 F60 ; N5 GO3 X40.0 C30.0 R10.0 ; N6 GO1 X-60.0 ; N7 C-20.0 ;...

  • Page 213

    6-5 G40, G41, G42, G1 40, G1 43, GI 45 Tool Radius Compensation Function Generally, an imaginary tool nose point at o or 9 can not be applied a tool radius compensation, however, at the time of GI43 mode, a tool radius compensation can be effective by GI45 at an imaginary tool nose point 9. Howev...

  • Page 214

    6-5-2 Movement of Tool Radius Compensation In case of execution of tool radius compensation, a program starts a status of compensation cancel (G40) and command a tool radius compensation mode (G41, G42) then completes after command a compensation cancel status again. Divide it three conditions an...

  • Page 215

    2. p During tool radius compensation mode, the tool moves so that the center of tool is located at the position perpendicular to the advance direction of the tool. tool path When tangent angle is 18O0, the center of tool is located at the position perpendicular to the command point. 3. Tool ra$iu...

  • Page 216

    (Note) 1. A plane designation should not change during tool radius compensation mode. 2. In case of changing a direction of tool radius compensation during tool radius compensation, cancel a tool radius compensation once then execute a start UP. 3. Inside compensation of smaller arc than tool rad...

  • Page 217

    6-6 Program Example (Polar Coordinate Interpolation, Tool Radius Compensation Function) Example 1 N400 G28 UO G28 WO M43 G28 HO.... ................ C-axis zero return TO400 G17G145 .................. X-Y plane designation, Tool radius compensation is effective. G97 S800 M08 GOO XI 00.0 2200.0 MI...

  • Page 218

    N 1000 M43 a...................... C-axis connection G28 HO .................... C-axis zero return Tl 000 GI7 GI45 G97 Sl 000 M08 GOO X1OO.O 220.0 MI 3 .... Rotating tool GO1 G98 21.0 Fl000 forward start GI 21 GO1 C1O.O G42X80.0 F300......--... Tool radius X40.0 F100 compensation ON GO2 X20.0 C2...

  • Page 219

    6-7 G824, G843 Direct Tapping A direct tapping is performed with a spindle speed of rotating tool and feed rate of tapping axis synchronize perfectly, therefore, a floating tap holder is not required and a high accuracy tapping is available at high speed. (1) Command form G842 : Forward direct ta...

  • Page 220

    (3) Designation of feed rate and pitch (F command) At the direct tapping, the meaning of F command differs at the feed per minute mode (G98) and feed per revolution mode (G99). Also, the E command is available instead of the F command at the G99 mode. G98 mode : The F shows a feed rate of tapping...

  • Page 221

    setting. (d) When it performs at the single block, a tool stops at the initial point or R point. (e) If the "Halt" button is pressed during the tapping, the halt lamp turns on immediately but the motion continues until the R point then stops. (f) To cancel a direct tapping, command G80 ...

  • Page 222

    6-8 G271 Cylindrical Interpolation When commanding a traveling amount of linear axis and angle of rotary axis by a program command, a traveling amount of rotary axis commanded by an angle converts to a distance on the circumference internally. A distance on the circumference deems a traveling amo...

  • Page 223

    (4) Program example (X axis is a diametal designation) (Select the C - 2 plane by the parameter No. 3426 and 3427) N400; G28 UO; G28 WO M43; G28 HO; T0400; GI 9 G98 M44; G40 G80; G50 CO; G97 S600; M145; GOO X120.0 2-120.0 CO M13; G271 C50.0; Cylindrical interpolation mode ON Nl G42 GO1 2-40.0 F50...

  • Page 224

    Z (Linear axis) c_. LJ c qjjt (Rotary axis) R : Radius of cylinder (mm) (5) Precautions (a) If a tool radius compensation is commanded, start up and cancel should be done during the cylindrical interpolation mode. (b) The G271 command (G271 Cxx;) should be commanded in the block individually. Als...

  • Page 225

    GOO (Restricted only when the rotary axis which performs the cylindrical interpolation has been commanded.) (9 At the cylindrical interpolation mode, convert an angle of rotary axis to the distance on the circumference then convert reversely after interpolation. At this time a conversion error ge...

  • Page 226

    7-1 How to Calculate C-axis Feed Rate for Long Hole Machining 7. REFERENCE (SPECIFICATIONS OF C-AXIS CONTROL) Work drawing 1 Work drawing 6 - 46.6 long hole 01 1 ---- --. --- / 1) C-axis feed rate (mmlmin); No decimal point allowed Arc length per lo D : Cutting diameter Feed rate per minute : Fee...

  • Page 227

    2) Feed rate insideloutside the arc Rp radius of program path Rc RC radius of center path of the cutter F = F x - RP Example I $10 end mill I @ If the program path is Fl00 w 15 F=lOOx-- 20 - 75mmlmin i 3) Feed rate of the rotating axis Example Specify in deglmin. +&-+-A- point , Move at 300 d...

  • Page 228

    7-2 How to Calculate the Number of Rotation and Feed Rate of the Rotating Tool 1) The number of rotation of the rotating tool N = Rotation per minute (min") N = 1 ooov nD D = Diameter of the cutter (mm) V = Cutting rate Example) Rotation per minute when machining with D1O.O drill, V20 N = 10...

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    Down-cutting A tool nose flank is worn out less and a tool life is longer. A cutting resistance is low. . ~i,,i~h surface roughness is superior in dry cutting. - Coolant has a less effect on finish surface roughness and may worsens it to the contrary. A tool nose is likely to be damaged in scale ...

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