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    NCT® 990MNCT® 100MControls for Milling Machines and Machining CentersProgrammer's ManualFrom SW version x.060

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    Manufactured by NCT Automation kft.H1148 Budapest Fogarasi út 7: Address: H1631 Bp. pf.: 26F Phone: (+36 1) 467 63 00F Fax:(+36 1) 363 6605E-mail: nct@nct.huHome Page: www.nct.hu

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    3Contents1 Introduction ............................................................. 91.1 The Part Program ..................................................... 9Word ........................................................... .... 9Address Chain ....................................................

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    46.4.5 Automatic Corner Override (G62) ................................... 496.4.6 Internal Circular Cutting Override ................................... 506.5 Automatic Deceleration at Corners ...................................... 506.6 Limiting Accelerations in Normal Direction along the Path ...

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    512.2 Program Format for Tool Number Programming ........................... 8913 Miscellaneous and Auxiliary Functions .................................... 9113.1 Miscellaneous Functions (Codes M) .................................... 9113.2 Auxiliary Function (Codes A, B, C) .......................

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    618 Canned Cycles for Drilling .............................................. 15118.1 Detailed Description of Canned Cycles ................................. 15718.1.1 High Speed Peck Drilling Cycle (G73) ............................. 15718.1.2 Counter Tapping Cycle (G74) ...........................

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    721.12.3 System Variables ............................................. 19121.13 Instructions of the Programming Language ............................. 19921.13.1 Definition, Substitution ........................................ 19921.13.2 Arithmetic Operations and Functions ........................

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    8 © Copyright NCT October 14, 2004The Publisher reserves all rights for contentsof this Manual. No reprinting, even in ex-tracts, is permissible unless our written con-sent is obtained.The text of this Manual has been compiledand checked with utmost care, yet we as-sume no liability for possibl...

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    1 Introduction91 Introduction1.1 The Part ProgramThe Part Program is a set of instructions that can be interpreted by the control system in order tocontrol the operation of the machine.The Part Program consists of blocks which, in turn, comprise words.Word: Address and DataEach word is made up of...

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    1 Introduction10BlockA block is made up of words.The blocks are separated by characters s (Line Feed) in the memory. The use of a block numberis not mandatory in the blocks. To distinguish the end of block from the beginning of anotherblock on the screen, each new block begins in a new line, with...

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    1 Introduction11DNC ChannelA program contained in an external unit (e.g., in a computer) can also be executed without storingit in the control's memory. Now the control will read the program, instead of the memory, fromthe external data medium through the RS232C interface. That link is referred t...

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    1 Introduction12Fig. 1.2-1Fig. 1.2-2Fig. 1.2-31.2 Fundamental TermsThe InterpolationThe control system can move the tool alongstraight lines and arcs in the course of mach-ining. These activities will be hereafter refer-red to as "interpolation".Tool movement along a straight line:progr...

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    1 Introduction13Fig. 1.2-4Fig. 1.2-5Reference PointThe reference point is a fixed point on the machine-tool. After power-on of the machine, theslides have to be moved to the reference point. Afterwards the control system will be able to inter-pret data of absolute coordinates as well.Coordinate S...

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    1 Introduction14Fig. 1.2-6Fig. 1.2-7Absolute Coordinate SpecificationWhen absolute coordinates are specified,the tool travels a distance measured fromthe origin of the coordinate system, i.e.,to a point whose position has been speci-fied by the coordinates.The code of absolute data specificationi...

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    1 Introduction15Fig. 1.2-8Fig. 1.2-9One-shot (Non-modal) FunctionsSome codes or values are effective only in the block in which they are specified. These are one-shot functions.Spindle Speed CommandThe spindle speed can be specified at address S. It is also termed as "S function". Instr...

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    1 Introduction16Wear CompensationThe tools are exposed to wear in the course of machining. Allowance can be made for such di-mensional changes (in length and radius as well) with wear compensations. The tool wear can beset in the control system. A geometry value, i.e., the initial length and radi...

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    2 Controlled Axes17Fig. 2.1-12 Controlled AxesNumber of Axes (in basic configuration)3 axesIn expanded configuration5 additional axes (8 axes altogether)Number of axes to be moved simultaneously8 axes (with linear interpolation)2.1 Names of AxesThe names of controlled axes can be defined in the p...

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    2 Controlled Axes18The input increment system of the control is regarded as the smallest unit to be entered. It canbe selected as parameter. There are three systems available - IS-A IS-B and IS-C. The incrementsystems may not be combined for the axes on a given machine.Having processed the input ...

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    3 Preparatory Functions (G codes)193 Preparatory Functions (G codes)The type of command in the given block will be determined by address G and the number fol-lowing it.The Table below contains the G codes interpreted by the control system, the groups and functionsthereof.G codeGroupFunctionPageG0...

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    3 Preparatory Functions (G codes)G codeGroupFunctionPage20G39cutter compensation corner arc119G40*07cutter radius/3 dimensional tool compensation cancel104G41cutter radius compensation left/3 dimensional tool compensation104,103,107G42cutter radius compensation right104,103,107G43*08tool length c...

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    3 Preparatory Functions (G codes)G codeGroupFunctionPage21G76fine boring cycle159G80*canned cycle cancel160G81drilling, spot boring cycle,160G82drilling, counter boring cycle161G83peck drilling cycle162G84tapping cycle163G84.2rigid tap cycle164G84.3rigid counter tap cycle164G85boring cycle167G86B...

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    4 The Interpolation22Fig. 4.1-14 The Interpolation4.1 Positioning (G00)The series of instructionsG00 vrefers to a positioning in the current coordinate system.It moves to the coordinate v. Designation v (vector) refers here (and hereinafter) to all controlledaxes used on the machine-tool. (They m...

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    4 The Interpolation23Fig. 4.2-1Fig. 4.2-2.............................Feed along the axis U is.............................Feed along the axis C iswhere x, y, u, c are the displacements programmed along the respective axes, L is the vectoriallength of programmed displacement:G01 X100 Y80 F150The ...

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    4 The Interpolation24Fig. 4.3-14.3 Circular and Spiral Interpolation (G02, G03)The series of instructions specify circular interpolation.A circular interpolation is accomplished in the plane selected by commands G17, G18, G19 inclockwise or counter-clockwise direction (with G02 or G03, respective...

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    4 The Interpolation25Fig. 4.3-2Fig. 4.3-3Further data of the circle may be specified in one of two different ways.Case 1At address R where R is the radius of the circle. Now the control will automatically calculate thecoordinates of the circle center from the start point coordinates (the point wh...

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    4 The Interpolation26Fig. 4.3-4Fig. 4.3-5Fig. 4.3-6The feed along the path can be programmed at address F,pointing in the direction of the circle tangent, and beingconstant all along the path. L Notes: – I0, J0, K0 may be omitted, e.g. G03 X0 Y100 I-100 – When each of Xp, Yp and Zp is omitted...

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    4 The Interpolation27Fig. 4.3-7Fig. 4.4-1If the specified circle radius is smaller thanhalf the distance of straight line inter-connec-ting the start point with the end point, the con-trol will regard the specified radius of the cir-cle as the start-point radius, and will interpo-late a circle of...

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    4 The Interpolation28Fig. 4.4-2Fig. 4.5-1The series of instructionsdefine a multi-dimensional spatial helical interpolation in which q, r, s are optional axes not in-volved in the circle interpolation.For example, series of instructionsG17 G3 X0 Y-100 Z50 V20 I-100will move the tool along the sup...

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    4 The Interpolation29Fig. 4.5-2Fig. 4.5-3 – If the lead is specified at address F, the data will be interpreted in mm/rev or inch/rev. Accor-dingly, F2.5 has to be programmed if a thread of 2.5 mm lead is to be cut. – If the pitch is specified at address E, the control will cut an inch thread...

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    4 The Interpolation30 – Error message 3022 DIVIDE BY 0 IN G33 is produced when 0 is specified for address E in thethread-cutting block. – An encoder has to be mounted on the spindle for the execution of command G33. – In the course of command G33 being executed, the control will take the fe...

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    4.6 Polar Coordinate Interpolation (G12.1, G13.1)31Fig. 4.6-14.6 Polar Coordinate Interpolation (G12.1, G13.1)Polar coordinate interpolation is a control operation method, in case of which the work describedin a Cartesian coordinate system moves its contour path by moving a linear and a rotary ax...

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    4.6 Polar Coordinate Interpolation (G12.1, G13.1)32Programming length coordinates in the course of polar coordinate interpolationIn the switched-on state of the polar coordinate interpolation length coordinate data may be pro-grammed on both axes belonging to the selected plane; The rotary axis i...

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    4.6 Polar Coordinate Interpolation (G12.1, G13.1)33Fig. 4.6-2Fig. 4.6-3The diagram beside shows the cases whenstraight lines parallel to axis X (1, 2, 3, 4) areprogrammed. )x move belongs to the pro-grammed feed within a time unit. Differentangular moves (n1, n2, n3, n4) belong to )xmove for each...

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    4.6 Polar Coordinate Interpolation (G12.1, G13.1)34N090 G12.1(polar coordinate interpolation on)N100 G42 G1 X100 F1000N110 C30N120 G3 X60 C50 I-20 J0N130 G1 X-40N140 X-100 C20N150 C-30N160 G3 X-60 C-50 R20N170 G1 X40N180 X100 C-20N190 C0N200 G40 G0 X150N210 G13.1(polar coordinate interpolation of...

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    4.7 Cylindrical Interpolation (G7.1)35Fig. 4.7-14.7 Cylindrical Interpolation (G7.1)Should a cylindrical cam grooving be milled on a cylinder mantle, cylindrical interpolation is tobe used. In this case the rotation axis of the cylinder and of a rotary axis must coincide. The rotaryaxis movements...

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    4.7 Cylindrical Interpolation (G7.1)36Fig. 4.7-228 65118005..mmmm⋅°°⋅=π – Switch-on of cylindrical interpolation (command G7.1 Qr) is only possible in state G40. – Should G41 or G42 be switched on in cylindrical interpolation mode, G40 must be program-med before switching cylindrical i...

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    5 The Coordinate Data37Fig. 5.1-15 The Coordinate Data5.1 Absolute and Incremental Programming (G90, G91), Operator IThe input coordinate data can be specified as absolute or incremental values. In an absolute speci-fication, the coordinates of the end point have to be specified for the control, ...

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    5 The Coordinate Data38Fig. 5.2-1Fig. 5.2-2Fig. 5.2-3Example:G90 G16 G01 X100 Y60 F180Both the radius and the angle are ab-solute data, the tool moves to thepoint of 100mm; 60°.G90 G16 G01 X100 YI40 F180The angle is an incremental data. Amovement by 40° relative to the pre-vious angular positio...

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    5 The Coordinate Data39N6 Y300N7 Y360N8 G15 G0 X1005.3 Inch/Metric Conversion (G20, G21)With the appropriate G code programmed, the input data can be specified in metric or inch units.G20: Inch input programmingG21: Metric input programmingAt the beginning of the program, the desired input unit h...

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    5 The Coordinate Data40The value ranges of the length coordinates are shown in the Table below.input unit output unit incrementsystem value range of lengthcoordinates unit ofmeasuremmmmIS-A± 0.01-999999.99mmIS-B± 0.001-99999.999IS-C± 0.0001-9999.9999inchmmIS-A± 0.001-39370.078inchIS-B± 0.00...

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    5 The Coordinate Data41Specifying path per roll-overThe path per one roll-over of the axis is defined at parameter 0261 ROLLAMNT_A, 0262 ROLL-AMNT_B or 0263 ROLLAMNT_C in input increment for axes A, B or C, respectively. Thus ifthe control is operating in increment system B and the axis rotates ...

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    5 The Coordinate Data42Movement of rotary axis in case of incremental programmingIn case of programming incremental data input the direction of movement is always accordingto the programmed sign.The appropriate parameter ROLLAMNT_x to be applied for movement setting can be set atparameter 0247 RE...

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    6 The Feed43Fig. 6.2-16 The Feed6.1 Feed in Rapid TraverseG00 commands a positioning in rapid traverse.The value of rapid traverse for each axis is set by parameter by the builder of the machine. Therapid traverse may be different for each axis.When several axes are performing rapid traverse moti...

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    6 The Feed44effective.6.2.1 Feed per Minute (G94) and Feed per Revolution (G95)The unit of feed can be specified in the program with the G94 and G95 codes:G94: feed per minuteG95: feed per revolutionThe term "feed/minute" refers to a feed specified in units mm/minute, inch/minute ordegr...

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    6 The Feed45The Table below shows the maximum programmable range of values at address F, for variouscases. input units output units incrementsystem value range of address F unitmmmmIS-A0.001 - 250000mmordeg/minIS-B0.0001 - 25000IS-C0.00001 - 2500IS-A0.0001 - 5000mmordeg/revIS-B0.00001 - 500IS-C0....

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    6 The Feed46Fig. 6.3-1The maximum jog feed can also be clamped separately by parameters for human response times.6.3 Acceleration/Deceleration. Taking F Feed into AccountAcceleration and deceleration in case of movement start and stop is needed in order to minimizeor level the effect of powers me...

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    6 The Feed47Fig. 6.3-2Fig. 6.3-3Fig. 6.3-4In case of bell-shaped acceleration thevalue of acceleration changes, i.e. it in-creases in the course of acceleration un-til it reaches the acceleration value set(parameter ACCn) as well as it de-creases linearly before reaching the tar-get speed. Conclu...

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    6 The Feed48Fig. 6.4-16.4 Feed Control FunctionsThe override control functions are required when corners are to be machined, and/or when theparticular technology requires the override and stop switches to be canceled.When machining corners, with continuous cut-ting applied, the slides are - on ac...

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    6 The Feed49Fig. 6.4.5-1Fig. 6.4.5-2Fig. 6.4.5-36.4.5 Automatic Corner Override (G62)Modal function canceled by any of codes G61, G63 or G64.When inside corners are being machined,higher forces are acting upon the tool beforeand after the corners. To prevent the overloadof the tool and developing...

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    6 The Feed50Fig. 6.4.6-16.4.6 Internal Circular Cutting OverrideWith the cutter compensation on (G41, G42), the controlwill automatically reduce the feed in machining the insidesurface of an arc so that the programmed feed will be ef-fective along the cutting radius. The feed in the center ofthe ...

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    6 The Feed51Fig. 6.5-2Fig. 6.5-1If no deceleration isexecuted at the cornerin two subsequent -N1, N2 blocks, feeddifferences ()Fx,)Fy) occur along theaxes, which results inthe tool rounding thereal corner.For the corner deceleration function to operate, parameter 2501 CDEN must be set to 1.The c...

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    6 The Feed52FFFFFFcxxyy=×min,,...maxmax∆∆∆∆Fig. 6.5-4Fig. 6.5-3Deceleration at corners by monitoring the cange of feed components per axisIf 2501 CDEN=1 and 2502 FEEDDIF=1, deceleration is executed by monitoring the change offeed components. This setting only operates i...

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    6 The Feed53Fa r=⋅Fig. 6.6-1Fig. 6.5-5In case of parameter setting 2503 GEO=1 the control starts from the worst case(45/) and operates with the feed valid inthe case of 45/ independent of the geo-metric position of angle legs. This canresult in at most 30% feed decrease.L Warning: Automatic fe...

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    7 High-Speed High-Precision Machining547 High-Speed High-Precision MachiningHigh-speed high-precision machining is applied mainly if the path is built up of succeeding shortstraight lines or arcs, as is usually in the case of metal die machining. As the effect of this function the tool follows th...

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    7 High-Speed High-Precision Machining55Fig. 7.2.1-1roughingSelection can be made from program by means of control lineG5.1 Q1 Rq,where parametersR1 finishingR2 medium roughing R3 roughingcan be called. If no value is given to address R in the program, the control takes the setting of the subgrou...

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    7 High-Speed High-Precision Machining56N2520 X25.437 Y47.839N2530 X25.439 Y47.835N2540 X25.440 Y47.831N2550 X25.442 Y47.827In the above example in blocks N2500 and N2530 movement along axis Y is 47.835 ! 47.847= !0.012, which is larger than the value set at parameter. For this reason the control ...

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    7 High-Speed High-Precision Machining57The needed speed feedforward can be defined in the parameter groups for each axis. Interpretationof parameters: 0.01%. Thus, if on axis 2 feedforward of 94.8% is to be set for finishing, then 2652FINFFORW2=9480.Advised value range: 8000...9500 (80%...95%)Typ...

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    7 High-Speed High-Precision Machining58Fig. 7.2.4-17.2.4 Limiting the Accelerations Occurring along the Path in Normal DirectionFeed is also limited at circular arcs in case of high-speed high-precision machining as discussedin chapter 6.6 on page 53.In case of straight interpolation though the g...

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    7 High-Speed High-Precision Machining59Fig. 7.2.4-2which the maximal acceleration in normal direction can be set in mm/sec2. 2631 FINNORMACC is for finishing2731 MEDNORMACC is for medium roughing, while 2831 ROUNORMACC is for roughing.If the parameter value exceeds the value of parameter ACC defi...

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    7 High-Speed High-Precision Machining607.2.5 Defining Feed from Acceleration ParametersIn high-speed high-precision path tracking mode the user may define feed exclusively by accelera-tion parameters set as well as speed differences enabled, in function of work geometry and maxi-mum speed on the ...

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    7 High-Speed High-Precision Machining617.3 Summarizing HSHP Path Tracking Parametersin COMMON main group1221 CODES subgroup (BIT)1228 HSHP (BIT)After power-on the mode according to the parameter is activated. If the parameter value=0:high-speed high-precision path tracking (HSHP) is off. Its effe...

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    7 High-Speed High-Precision Machining62Fa r=×2511 CRITICAN subgroup (WORD)2511 CRITICAN (WORD)The value of the critical angle can be specified at this parameter in degree, should automa-tic feed deceleration at corners be executed to the critical angle (FEEDDIF=0) .2512 FEEDCORN (WORD)The feed ...

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    7 High-Speed High-Precision Machining632533 ZAXOVEN (BIT)Its value is obligatorily 0.2534 NOFEEDR (BIT)If parameter value=0: the control takes programmed F when calculating feed,=1: in state G5.1 Q1 all F feed commands are ineffective. Programmed feed is inheritedand activated as the effect of co...

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    7 High-Speed High-Precision Machining642562 MEDIUM (BIT)If the parameter value is 1, medium roughing parameters No. 2700 of HSHP machiningare selected. It substitutes command G5.1 R2.2563 ROUGH (BIT)If the parameter value is 1, roughing parameters No. 2800 of HSHP machining are selec-ted. It su...

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    7 High-Speed High-Precision Machining652601 FINLEVEL subgroup (WORD)2601 FINACCUR (WORD)In course of HSHP machining in case of finishing the programmed short straight move-ments are pooled by axes until the movement on an axis is larger than the value set at theparameter, and the pooled movements...

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    7 High-Speed High-Precision Machining662641 FINFDIF subgroup (WORD)264n FINFDIFn (WORD)This parameter provides the critical feed difference enabled at corners in course of HSHPmachining in case of finishing.Its interpretation is mm/min (if INCHDET=0) or inch/min (if INCHDET=1) in case of li-near ...

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    7 High-Speed High-Precision Machining672701 MEDLEVEL subgroup (WORD)2701 MEDACCUR (WORD)In course of HSHP machining in case of medium roughing the programmed short straightmovements are pooled by axes until the movement on an axis is larger than the value setat the parameter, and the pooled movem...

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    7 High-Speed High-Precision Machining682741 MEDFDIF subgroup (WORD)274n MEDFDIFn (WORD)This parameter provides the critical feed difference enabled at corners in course of HSHPmachining in case of medium roughing.Its interpretation is mm/min (if INCHDET=0) or inch/min (if INCHDET=1) in case of li...

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    7 High-Speed High-Precision Machining692801 ROULEVEL subgroup (WORD)2801 ROUACCUR (WORD)In course of HSHP machining in case of roughing the programmed short straight move-ments are pooled by axes until the movement on an axis is larger than the value set at theparameter, and the pooled movements ...

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    7 High-Speed High-Precision Machining702841 ROUFDIF subgroup (WORD)284n ROUFDIFn (WORD)This parameter provides the critical feed difference enabled at corners in course of HSHPmachining in case of roughing.Its interpretation is mm/min (if INCHDET=0) or inch/min (if INCHDET=1) in case of li-near a...

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    8 The Dwell718 The Dwell (G04)The(G94) G04 P....command will program the dwell in seconds.The range of P is 0.001 to 99999.999 seconds.The(G95) G04 P....command will program the dwell in terms of spindle revolutions.The range of P is 0.001 to 99999.999 revolutions.Depending on parameter SECOND, t...

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    9 The Reference Point72Fig. 9-1 9 The Reference PointThe reference point is a distinguished positionon the machine-tool, to which the control caneasily return. The location of the referencepoint can be defined as a parameter in the co-ordinate system of the machine. Work coordi-nate system can be...

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    9 The Reference Point739.2 Automatic Return to Reference Points 2nd, 3rd, 4th (G30)Series of instructionsG30 v Pwill send the axes of coordinates defined at the addresses of vector v to the reference point de-fined at address P.P1=reference point 1P2=reference point 2P3=reference point 3P4=refer...

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    9 The Reference Point74Fig. 9.3-1G29. If coordinate v has an incremental value, the displacement will be measured from the inter-mediate point.When the cutter compensation is set up, it will move to the end point by taking into account thecompensation vector.A non-modal code.An example of using G...

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    10 Coordinate Systems, Plane Selection75Fig. 10-1Fig. 10.1-110 Coordinate Systems, Plane SelectionThe position, to which the tool is to be moved, is specified with coordinate data in the program.When 3 axes are available (X, Y, Z), the position of the tool is expressed by three coordinate dataX__...

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    10 Coordinate Systems, Plane Selection76Fig. 10.2.1-110.1.1 Setting the Machine Coordinate SystemAfter a reference point return, the machine coordinate system can be set in parameters. The dis-tance of the reference point, calculated from the origin of the machine coordinate system, has tobe writ...

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    10 Coordinate Systems, Plane Selection77Fig. 10.2.1-2Fig. 10.2.2-1Furthermore, all work coordinate system can be offset with a common value. It can also be ente-red in setting mode.10.2.2 Selecting the Work Coordinate SystemThe various work coordinate system can be selected with instructions G54....

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    10 Coordinate Systems, Plane Selection78Fig. 10.2.2-2After a change of the work coordinate system,the tool position will be displayed in the newcoordinate system. For instance, there are twoworkpieces on the table. The first work coordi-nate system (G54) has been assigned to zeropoint of one of t...

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    10 Coordinate Systems, Plane Selection79Fig. 10.2.4-1Fig. 10.2.4-2If, e.g., the tool is at a point of X=150, Y=100coordinates, in the actual (current) X, Y workcoordinate system, instruction G92 X90 Y60will create a new X', Y' coordinate system, inwhich the tool will be set to the point ofX'=90, ...

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    10 Coordinate Systems, Plane Selection80Fig. 10.3-1Fig. 10.3-2coincide with the point v in the work coordinate system. – When specified as an incremental value, the origin of the local coordinate system will be shif-ted with v offset (provided a local coordinate system has been defined previous...

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    10 Coordinate Systems, Plane Selection81Fig. 10.3-3Fig. 10.4-1cified inG92 - as if command G52 v0 had been issued.Whenever the tool is at point of X=200,Y=120 coordinates in the X, Y work coordina-te system, instructionG52 X60 Y40will shift its position to X'=140, Y'=80 in theX', Y' local coordin...

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    10 Coordinate Systems, Plane Selection82Unless there is an axis address specified in the G17, G18, G19 block, the control will considerthe basic axes:the XY plane will be selected by G17,the XY plane will be selected by G17 X,the UY plane will be selected by G17 U,the XV plane will be selected by...

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    11 The Spindle Function83Fig. 11.2-111 The Spindle Function11.1 Spindle Speed Command (Code S)With a number of max. five digits written at address S, the NC will give a code to the PLC. De-pending on the design of the given machine-tool, the PLC may interpret address S as a code oras a data of re...

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    11 The Spindle Function8411.2.1 Constant Surface Speed Control Command (G96, G97)CommandG96 Sswitches constant surface speed control function on. The constant surface speed must be specifiedat address S in the unit of measure given in the above table.CommandG97 Scancels constant surface speed con...

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    11 The Spindle Function8511.2.3 Selecting an Axis for Constant Surface Speed ControlThe axis, which position the constant surface speed is calculated from, is selected by parameter1182 AXIS. The logic axis number must be written at the parameter.If other than the selected axis is to be used, the ...

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    11 The Spindle Function8611.5 Spindle Positioning (Indexing)A spindle positioning is only feasible after the spindle position control loop has been closed afterorientation. Accordingly, this function is used for closing the loop. The loop will be opened byrotation command M3 or M4.If the value of...

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    11 The Spindle Function87Fig. 11.6-2Fig. 11.6-1Start of Spindle Speed Fluctuation DetectionAs the effect of new rotation speed the detection is suspended by the control. The speed fluctua-tion detection starts when - the current spindle speedreaches the specified spindlespeed within the toleranc...

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    11 The Spindle Function88Fig. 11.6-3Detecting ErrorIn the course of detection the control sends error message in case the deviation between currentand specified spindle speed exceeds- the tolerance limit specified by value "r" inpercent of the command value and- also the absolute tolera...

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    12 Tool Function8912 Tool Function12.1 Tool Select Command (Code T)With a number of max. four digits written at address T, the NC will give a code to the PLC.When a movement command and a tool number (T) are programmed in a given block, functionT will be issued during or after the motion command....

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    12 Tool Function90This procedure is described in the part program as follows.Part ProgramExplanation.....................Tnnnn........search for tool Tnnnn.................the part program is running, tool search is being performed in thebackground...M06 Tmmmm....tool Tnnnn is placed in the spind...

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    13 Miscellaneous and Auxiliary Functions9113 Miscellaneous and Auxiliary Functions13.1 Miscellaneous Functions (Codes M)With a numerical value of max. 3 digits specified behind address M, the NC will transfer the codeto the PLC.When a movement command and a miscellaneous function (M) are programm...

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    13 Miscellaneous and Auxiliary Functions92It will cause the execution to return to the position of call.13.2 Auxiliary Function (Codes A, B, C)Max. three digits can be specified at each of addresses A, B, C provided one (or all) of those add-resses is (are) selected as auxiliary function(s) in pa...

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    14 Part Program Configuration9314 Part Program ConfigurationThe structure of the part program has been described already in the introduction presenting thecodes and formats of the programs in the memory. This Section will discuss the procedures of or-ganizing the part programs.14.1 Sequence Numbe...

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    14 Part Program Configuration94main programO0010............subprogramcommentexecution of (main-)program O0010M98 P0011–––>O0011call ing subprogramO0011..................e x ecut ion ofsubprogram O0011next block<–––M99return to the callingprogram............resumption of program...

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    14 Part Program Configuration95main programO0010..................subprogramcommentexecution of programO0010N101 M98 P0011–––>O0011callin g subprogramO0011..................exec ution o fsubprogram O0011N102 ......<–––M99return to the nextblock of the callingprogram............r...

  • Page 96

    14 Part Program Configuration9614.3.3 Jump within the Main ProgramThe use of instructionM99in the main program will produce an unconditional jump to the first block of the main program,and the execution of the program will be resumed there. The use of this instruction results in anendless cycle:T...

  • Page 97

    15 The Tool Compensation9715 The Tool Compensation15.1 Referring to Tool Compensation Values (H and D)Reference can be made totool length compensation at address H,tool radius compensation at address D.The number behind the address (the tool compensation number) indicates the particular compen-sa...

  • Page 98

    15 The Tool Compensation98Limit values of geometry and wear: input units outputunits incrementsystem geometry value wear value unit ofmeasure mmmmIS-A±0.01 ÷99999.99±0.01÷163.80mmIS-B±0.001÷9999.999±0.001÷16.380IS-C±0.0001÷999.9999±0.0001÷1.6380inchmmIS-A±0.001÷9999.999±0.001...

  • Page 99

    15 The Tool Compensation9915.3 Tool Length Compensation (G43, G44, G49)InstructionG43 q H orG44 q Hwill set up the tool length compensation mode.Address q means axis q to which the tool length compensation is applied (q= X, Y, Z, U, V, W,A, B, C).Address H means the compensation cell, from which ...

  • Page 100

    15 The Tool Compensation100Fig. 15.3-1If, however, instruction G49 is used, any refe-rence to address H will be ineffective untilG43 or G44 is programmed.At power-on, the value defined in parametergroup CODES decides which code is effective(G43, G44, G49).The example below presents a simple drill...

  • Page 101

    15 The Tool Compensation101Fig. 15.4-1Fig. 15.4-2Fig. 15.4-3Fig. 15.4-4Fig. 15.4-5With G45 programmed (increase by the offset value):a. movement command: 20b. movement command: 20compensation: 5compensation: -5a. movement command: -20b. movement command: -20compensation: 5compensation: -5With G46...

  • Page 102

    15 The Tool Compensation102Fig. 15.4-6Fig. 15.4-7Fig. 15.4-8With G47 programmed (double increase by the offset value):a. movement command: 20cases b, c, d are similar to G45compensation: 5With G48 programmed (double decrease by the offset value):a. movement command: 20cases b, c, d are similar to...

  • Page 103

    15 The Tool Compensation103Fig. 15.4-9NC commandG45 XI0 D1G46 XI0 D1G45 XI-0 D1G46 XI-0 D1displacementx=12x=-12x=-12x=12A tool radius compensation applied with one of codes G45...G48 is also applicable with ¼ and¾ circles, provided the centers of the circles are specified at address I, J or K.A...

  • Page 104

    15 The Tool Compensation104Fig. 15.5-1Fig. 15.5-215.5 Cutter Compensation (G38, G39, G40, G41, G42)To be able to mill the contour of atwo-dimensional workpiece and tospecify the points of that forma-tion as per the drawing in the pro-gram (regardless of the size of thetool employed), the control ...

  • Page 105

    15 The Tool Compensation105The above points refer to the specification of positive tool radius compensation, but its value maybe negative, too. It has a practical meaning if, e.g., a given subprogram is to be used for definingthe contours of a "female" part and of a "male" one...

  • Page 106

    15 The Tool Compensation106Fig. 15.5-3An auxiliary data is to be introduced be-fore embarking on the discussion of thedetails of the compensation computa-tion. It is """, the angle at the corner oftwo consecutive blocks viewing from theworkpiece side. The direction of " de-pen...

  • Page 107

    15 The Tool Compensation107Fig. 15.5.1-115.5.1 Start up of Cutter CompensationAfter power-on, end of program or resetting to the beginning of the program, the control will as-sume state G40. The offset vector will be deleted, the path of the tool center will coincide withthe programmed path.Under...

  • Page 108

    15 The Tool Compensation108Fig. 15.5.1-2Fig. 15.5.1-3Fig. 15.5.1-4Going around the outside of a corner at an obtuse angle, 90°#"#180°Going around the outside of a corner at an acute angle, 0°#"<90°Special instances of starting up the radius compensation:If values are assigned to ...

  • Page 109

    15 The Tool Compensation109Fig. 15.5.1-5Fig. 15.5.1-6Fig. 15.5.1-7...G91 G17 G40...N110 G42 G1 X-80 Y60 I50 J70 D1N120 X100 ...In this case the control will always compute a point of in-tersection regardless of whether an inside or an outside cor-ner is to be machined.Unless a point of intersecti...

  • Page 110

    15 The Tool Compensation110Fig. 15.5.1-8If zero displacement is programmed (or such is produced) in the block containing the activationof compensation (G41, G42), the control will not perform any movement but will carry on themachining along the above-mentioned strategy....N10 G40 G17 G0 X0 Y0N15...

  • Page 111

    15 The Tool Compensation111Fig. 15.5.2-115.5.2 Rules of Cutter Compensation in Offset ModeIn offset mode the compensation vectors will be calculated continuously between interpolationblocks G00, G01, G02, G03 (see the basic instances) until more than one block will be inserted,that do not contain...

  • Page 112

    15 The Tool Compensation112Fig. 15.5.2-2Fig. 15.5.2-3It may occur that no intersection point is ob-tained with some tool-radius values. In thiscase the control comes to a halt during execu-tion of the previous interpolation and returnserror message 3046 NO INTERSECTION G41,G42.Going around the ou...

  • Page 113

    15 The Tool Compensation113Fig. 15.5.2-4Fig. 15.5.2-5Going around the outside of a corner at an acute angle, 0°#"<90°Special instances of offset mode:If zero displacement is programmed (or such is obtained) in the selected plane in a block in offsetmode, a perpendicular vector will be p...

  • Page 114

    15 The Tool Compensation114Fig. 15.5.3-1Fig. 15.5.3-215.5.3 Canceling of Offset ModeCommand G40 will cancel the computation of tool radius compensation. Such a command canbe issued with linear interpolation only. The control will return error message 3042 G40 IN G2,G3 to any attempt to program G4...

  • Page 115

    15 The Tool Compensation115Fig. 15.5.3-3Fig. 15.5.3-4Fig. 15.5.3-5Going around the outside of a corner at an acute angle, 0°#"<90°Special instances of canceling offset mode:If values are assigned to I, J, K in the compensation cancel block (G40) - but only to those in theselected plane ...

  • Page 116

    15 The Tool Compensation116Fig. 15.5.3-6Fig. 15.5.3-7Fig. 15.5.3-8Unless a point of intersection is found, the control willmove, at a right angle, to the end point of the previous in-terpolation.If the compensation is canceled in a block in which nomovement is programmed in the selected plane, an...

  • Page 117

    15 The Tool Compensation117Fig. 15.5.4-115.5.4 Change of Offset Direction While in the Offset ModeThe direction of tool-radius compensation computation is given in the Table below.Radius compensation: positiveRadius compensation: negativeG41leftrightG42rightleftThe direction of offset mode can be...

  • Page 118

    15 The Tool Compensation118Fig. 15.5.4-2Fig. 15.5.4-3Fig. 15.5.4-4Unless a point of intersection is found in a li-near-to-linear transition, the path of the toolwill be:Unless a point of intersection is found in a li-near-to-circular transition, the path of the toolwill be:Unless a point of inter...

  • Page 119

    15 The Tool Compensation119Fig. 15.5.5-1Fig. 15.5.5-215.5.5 Programming Vector Hold (G38)Under the action of commandG38 vthe control will hold the last compensation vector between the previous interpolation and G38block in offset mode, and will implement it at the end of G38 block irrespective of...

  • Page 120

    15 The Tool Compensation120Fig. 15.5.6-1Fig. 15.5.6-2The start and end points of the arc will begiven by a tool-radius long vector perpendicu-lar to the end point of the path of previous in-terpolation and by a tool-radius vector perpen-dicular to the start point of the next one, re-spectively. G...

  • Page 121

    15 The Tool Compensation121Fig. 15.5.7-1Fig. 15.5.7-215.5.7 General Information on the Application of Cutter CompensationIn offset mode (G41, G42), the control will always have to compute the compensation vectorsbetween two interpolation blocks in the selected plane. In practice it may be necessa...

  • Page 122

    15 The Tool Compensation122Fig. 15.5.7-3Fig. 15.5.7-4Fig. 15.5.7-5If no cut is feasible in direction Z unless the radius compensation isset up, the following procedure may be adopted:...G17 G91...N110 G41 G0 X50 Y70 D1N120 G1 Z-40N130 Y40...Now the tool will have a correct path as is shown in the...

  • Page 123

    15 The Tool Compensation123Fig. 15.5.7-6Fig. 15.5.7-7Fig. 15.5.7-8interpolation, the command will be executed and the vector will be restored at the end point ofthe next interpolation. If the previous or next interpolation is a circular one, the control will returnerror message 3041 AFTER G2, G3 ...

  • Page 124

    15 The Tool Compensation124Fig. 15.5.7-9Fig. 15.5.7-10Fig. 15.5.7-11A new compensation value can also becalled at address D in offset mode. In theevent of a reversal in the sign of the ra-dius, the direction of motion along thecontours will be reversed (see earlier).Otherwise, the following proce...

  • Page 125

    15 The Tool Compensation125Fig. 15.5.7-12Fig. 15.5.7-13Fig. 15.5.7-14When the radius compensation is applied to acircle of a variable radius, the control will cal-culate the compensation vector(s) to an imagi-nary circle at the start point thereof, the radiusof which is equal to the start-point r...

  • Page 126

    15 The Tool Compensation126Fig. 15.5.7-15Fig. 15.5.8-1Two or more compensation vectors may be producedwhen going around sharp corners. When their endpoints lie close to each other, there will be hardly anymotion between the two points.When the distance between the two vectors is smal-ler than the...

  • Page 127

    15 The Tool Compensation127Fig. 15.5.8-2Fig. 15.5.8-3In the other words the con-trol will check wether thecompensated displacementvector has a component op-posite to the programmeddisplacement vector or not.If parameter ANGLAL is set to 1, the control will, after an angle check, return an interfe...

  • Page 128

    15 The Tool Compensation128Fig. 15.5.8-4Automatic repairing of interference error by neglecting compensation vectors.If parameter ANGLAL is set to 0, the control will not return an error message, but will automati-cally attempt to correct the contour in order to avoid overcutting. The procedure o...

  • Page 129

    15 The Tool Compensation129Fig. 15.5.8-5Fig. 15.5.8-6Fig. 15.5.8-7Automatic repairing of interference error by adding gap vector.If 1262 ANGLAL= 0 and 1263GAP=0, the control tries to repairinterference error by neglectingcompensation vectors as discus-sed before in state G41, G42.If 1262 ANGLAL= ...

  • Page 130

    15 The Tool Compensation130Fig. 15.5.8-8Fig. 15.5.8-9Fig. 15.5.8-10Milling a step smaller than the tool ra-dius along an arc. If parameter ANGLALis 0, the control will delete vector LP2 andwill interconnect vectors LP1 and LP3 by astraight line to avoid a cut-in. If parame-ter ANGLAL is 1 it ret...

  • Page 131

    15 The Tool Compensation13115.6 Three-dimensional Tool Offset (G41, G42)The 2D tool radius compensation will offset the tool in the plane selected by commands G17,G18, G19. The application of the three-dimensional tool compensation enables the tool compen-sation to be taken into account in three ...

  • Page 132

    15 The Tool Compensation132Fig. 15.6.2-115.6.2 The Three-dimensional Offset VectorThe control will generate the components of compensation vectors in the following way:where r is the compensation value called at address D,P is the dominator constant,I, J, K are values specified in the program.The...

  • Page 133

    15 The Tool Compensation133It is not feasible to set up the three-dimensional compensation and two-dimensional radius com-pensation simultaneously.

  • Page 134

    16 Special Transformations134Fig. 16.1-1Fig. 16.1-216 Special Transformations16.1 Coordinate System Rotation (G68, G69)A programmed shape can be rotated in the plane selected by G17, G18, G19 by the use ofcommandG68 p q RThe coordinates of the center of rotation will be specifiedat address p and ...

  • Page 135

    16 Special Transformations135Fig. 16.1-3Fig. 16.2-1Example:N1 G17 G90 G0 X0 Y0N2 G68 X90 Y60 R60N3 G1 X60 Y20 F150 (G91 X60 Y20 F150)N4 G91 X80N5 G3 Y60 R100N6 G1 X-80N7 Y-60N8 G69 G90 X0 Y016.2 Scaling (G50, G51)CommandG51 v Pcan be used for scaling a programmed shape.P1...P4:points specified ...

  • Page 136

    16 Special Transformations136Fig. 16.2-2For example:N1 G90 G0 X0 Y0N2 G51 X60 Y140 P0.5N3 G1 X30 Y100 F150 (G91 X30 Y100 F150)N4 G91 X100N5 G3 Y60 R100N6 G1 X-100N7 Y-60N8 G50 G90 X0 Y016.3 Programmable Mirror Image (G50.1, G51.1)A programmed shape can be projected as a mirror image along the c...

  • Page 137

    16 Special Transformations137Fig. 16.3-1Example:subprogramO0101N1 G90 G0 X180 Y120 F120N2 G1 X240N3 Y160N4 G3 X180 Y120 R80N5 M99main programO0100N1 G90(absolute coordinate specification)N2 M98 P101(call of subprogram)N3 G51.1 X140(mirror image applied to an axis parallel to axis Y oncoordinate X...

  • Page 138

    16 Special Transformations138Fig. 16.4-1It is evident from the figure that the order of applying the various transformations is relevant.The programmed mirror image is a different case. It can be set up in states G50 and G69 only, i.e.,in the absence of scaling and rotation commands.On the other ...

  • Page 139

    17 Automatic Geometric Calculations139Fig. 17.1-1Fig. 17.1-2Fig. 17.1-317 Automatic Geometric Calculations17.1 Programming Chamfer and Corner RoundThe control is able to insert chamfer or rounding between two blocks containing linear (G01) orcircle interpolation (G02, G03) automatically.A chamfer...

  • Page 140

    17 Automatic Geometric Calculations140Fig. 17.2-1L Note: – Chamfer or rounding can only be programmed between the coordinates of the selected plane(G17, G18, G19), otherwise error message 3081 DEFINITION ERROR ,C ,R is sent bythe control. – Chamfer or corner rounding can only be applied betwe...

  • Page 141

    17 Automatic Geometric Calculations141Fig. 17.2-2For example:G17 G90 G0 X57.735 Y0 ... G1 G91...X100 ,A30(this specification is equi-valent to X100 Y57.735 where7.735=100Atg30°)Y100 ,A120(this specification is equi-valent to X-57.735 Y100 where!57.735=100/tg120°)X-100 ,A210 (this specification ...

  • Page 142

    17 Automatic Geometric Calculations142Fig. 17.3.1-117.3 Intersection Calculations in the Selected PlaneIntersection calculations discussed here are only executed by the control when tool radius com-pensation (G41 or G42 offset mode) is on. If eventually no tool radius compensation is neededin the...

  • Page 143

    17 Automatic Geometric Calculations143Fig. 17.3.1-2Fig. 17.3.1-3Fig. 17.3.1-4For example:G17 G90 G41 D0...G0 X90 Y10N10 G1 ,A150N20 X10 Y20 ,A225G0 X0 Y20...Block N10 can also be given with the coordi-nates of a point of the straight line:G17 G90 G41 D0...G0 X90 Y10N10 G1 X50 Y33.094N20 X10 Y20 ,...

  • Page 144

    17 Automatic Geometric Calculations144Fig. 17.3.2-1Fig. 17.3.2-217.3.2 Linear-circular IntersectionIf a circular block is given after a linear block in a way that the end and center position coordina-tes as well as the radius of the circle are specified, i.e., the circle is determined over, then ...

  • Page 145

    17 Automatic Geometric Calculations145Fig. 17.3.2-3Fig. 17.3.2-4Let us see the following example:%O9981N10 G17 G42 G0 X100 Y20 D0 S200 M3N20 G1 X-30 Y-20N30 G3 X20 Y40 I20 J-10 R50 Q-1N40 G40 G0 Y60N50 X120N60 M30%%O9982N10 G17 G42 G0 X100 Y20 D0 S200 M3N20 G1 X-30 Y-20N30 G3 X20 Y40 I20 J-10 R50...

  • Page 146

    17 Automatic Geometric Calculations146Fig. 17.3.3-1Fig. 17.3.3-217.3.3 Circular-linear IntersectionIf a linear block is given after a circular block in a way that the straight line is defined over, i.e.,both its end point coordinate and the angle are specified, then the control calculates inters...

  • Page 147

    17 Automatic Geometric Calculations147Fig. 17.3.3-3Fig. 17.3.3-4Let us see an example:%O9983N10 G17 G0 X90 Y0 M3 S200N20 G42 G1 X50 D0N30 G3 X-50 Y0 R50N40 G1 X-50 Y42.857 ,A171.87 Q-1N50 G40 G0 Y70 N60 X90N70 M30%%O9984N10 G17 G0 X90 Y0 M3 S200N20 G42 G1 X50 D0N30 G3 X-50 Y0 R50N40 G1 X-50 Y42.8...

  • Page 148

    17 Automatic Geometric Calculations148Fig. 17.3.4-1Fig. 17.3.4-217.3.4 Circular-circular IntersectionIf two successive circular blocks are specified so that the end point, the center coordinates as wellas the radius of the second block are given, i.e., it is determined over the control calculates...

  • Page 149

    17 Automatic Geometric Calculations149Fig. 17.3.4-3Fig. 17.3.4-4Let us see the following example:%O9985N10 G17 G54 G0 X200 Y10 M3 S200N20 G42 G1 X180 D1N30 G3 X130 Y-40 R-50N40 X90 Y87.446 I50 J30 R70 Q–1N50 G40 G0 Y100N60 X200N70 M30%%O9986N10 G17 G54 G0 X200 Y10 M3 S200N20 G42 G1 X180 D1N30 G...

  • Page 150

    17 Automatic Geometric Calculations150Fig. 17.3.5-117.3.5 Chaining of Intersection CalculationsIntersection calculation blocks can be chained, i.e., more successive blocks can be selected forintersection calculation. The control calculates intersection till straight lines or circles determinedove...

  • Page 151

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling151Fig. 18-118 Canned Cycles for DrillingA drilling cycle may be broken up into the following operations.Operation 1: Positioning in the Selected PlaneOperation 2: Operation After PositioningOperation 3: Movement in Rapid Traverse to Point ROperation 4: Operation ...

  • Page 152

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling152Fig. 18-2where Xp is axis X or the one parallel to itYp is axis Y or the one parallel to itZp is axis Z or the one parallel to it.Axes U, V, W are regarded to be parallel ones when they are defined in parameters.The drilling cycles can be configured with instructi...

  • Page 153

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling153Fig. 18-3Initial point:The initial point is the position of axis selected for drilling; it will be recorded – when the cycle mode is set up. For example, in the case ofN1 G17 G90 G0 Z200N2 G81 X0 Y0 Z50 R150N3 X100 Y30 Z80the position of initial point will be Z=2...

  • Page 154

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling154Fig. 18-4rapid traverse.Data of drillingBottom position of the hole (point Z): Xp, Yp, ZpThe bottom position of the hole or point Z (in case of G17) has to be specified at the address ofthe drilling axis. The coordinate of the bottom point of the hole will always b...

  • Page 155

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling155Fig. 18-5scribed at G04. The value of the dwell is a modal one deleted by G80 or by the codes of the inter-polation group.Feed (F)It will define the feed. A modal value, re-written only by the programming of another data F. Itwill not be deleted by G80 or some othe...

  • Page 156

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling156Fig. 18-6Under the above instructions the control will drill6 holes spaced at 60 degrees around a circle of a200mm radius. The position of the first hole coin-cides with the point of X=200 Y=0 coordinates.

  • Page 157

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling157Fig. 18.1.1-118.1 Detailed Description of Canned Cycles18.1.1 High Speed Peck Drilling Cycle (G73)The variables used in the cycle areG17 G73 Xp__ Yp__ Zp__ R__ Q__ E__ F__ L__G18 G73 Zp__ Xp__ Yp__ R__ Q__ E__ F__ L__G19 G73 Yp__ Zp__ Xp__ R__ Q__ E__ F__ ...

  • Page 158

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling158Fig. 18.1.2-118.1.2 Counter Tapping Cycle (G74)This cycle can be used only with a spring tap. The variables used in the cycle areG17 G74 Xp__ Yp__ Zp__ R__ (P__) F__ L__G18 G74 Zp__ Xp__ Yp__ R__ (P__) F__ L__G19 G74 Yp__ Zp__ Xp__ R__ (P__) F__ L__Prio...

  • Page 159

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling159Fig. 18.1.3-118.1.3 Fine Boring Cycle (G76)Cycle G76 is only applicable when the facility of spindle orientation is incorporated in the machi-ne-tool. In this case parameter ORIENT1 is to be set to 1, otherwise message 3052 ERROR ING76 is returned.Since, on the bot...

  • Page 160

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling160Fig. 18.1.5-118.1.4 Canned Cycle Cancel (G80)The code G80 will cancel the cycle state, the cycle variables will be deleted.Z and R will assume incremental 0 value (the rest of variables will assume 0).With coordinates programmed in block G80 but no other instructio...

  • Page 161

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling161Fig. 18.1.6-118.1.6 Drilling, Counter Boring Cycle (G82)The variables used in the cycle areG17 G82 Xp__ Yp__ Zp__ R__ P__ F__ L__G18 G82 Zp__ Xp__ Yp__ R__ P__ F__ L__G19 G82 Yp__ Zp__ Xp__ R__ P__ F__ L__the operations of the cycle are1.rapid-traverse pos...

  • Page 162

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling162Fig. 18.1.7-118.1.7 Peck Drilling Cycle (G83)The variables used in the cycle areG17 G83 Xp__ Yp__ Zp__ R__ Q__ E__ F__ L__G18 G83 Zp__ Xp__ Yp__ R__ Q__ E__ F__ L__G19 G83 Yp__ Zp__ Xp__ R__ Q__ E__ F__ L__The oprations of the cycle are1.rapid-traverse pos...

  • Page 163

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling163Fig. 18.1.8-118.1.8 Tapping Cycle (G84)This cycle can be used only with a spring tap.The variables used in the cycle areG17 G84 Xp__ Yp__ Zp__ R__ (P__) F__ L__G18 G84 Zp__ Xp__ Yp__ R__ (P__) F__ L__G19 G84 Yp__ Zp__ Xp__ R__ (P__) F__ L__Direction of ...

  • Page 164

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling16418.1.9 Rigid (Clockwise and Counter-clockwise) Tap Cycles (G84.2, G84.3)In a tapping cycle the quotient of the drill-axis feed and the spindle rpm must be equal to thethread pitch of the tap. In other words, under ideal conditions of tapping, the quotient must be ...

  • Page 165

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling165Fig. 18.1.9-1 – In state G94 (feed per minute), where P is the thread pitch in mm/rev or inches/rev,S is the spindle speed in rpmIn this case the displacement and the feed along the drilling axis and the spindle will beas follows (Z assumed to be the drilling axi...

  • Page 166

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling166Fig. 18.1.9-26.-7.linear interpolation between the drilling axis and the spindle, with the spindle be-ing rotated counter-clockwise8.-9.with G98, rapid-traverse retraction to the initial point10.-In the case of G84.3, the operations of the cycle are1.rapid-traverse...

  • Page 167

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling167Fig. 18.1.10-118.1.10 Boring Cycle (G85)The variables used in the cycle areG17 G85 Xp__ Yp__ Zp__ R__ F__ L__G18 G85 Zp__ Xp__ Yp__ R__ F__ L__G19 G85 Yp__ Zp__ Xp__ R__ F__ L__The operations of the cycle are1.rapid-traverse positioning in the selected pla...

  • Page 168

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling168Fig. 18.1.11-118.1.11 Boring Cycle Tool Retraction with Rapid Traverse (G86)The variables used in the cycle areG17 G86 Xp__ Yp__ Zp__ R__ F__ L__G18 G86 Zp__ Xp__ Yp__ R__ F__ L__G19 G86 Yp__ Zp__ Xp__ R__ F__ L__The spindle has to be given rotation of M3 ...

  • Page 169

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling169Fig. 18.1.12-118.1.12 Boring Cycle/Back Boring Cycle (G87)The cycle will be performed in two different ways.A. Boring Cycle, Manual Operation at Bottom PointUnless the machine is provided with the facility of spindle orientation (parameter ORIENT1=0),the control wi...

  • Page 170

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling170Fig. 18.1.12-2B. Back Boring CycleIf the machine is provided with the facility of spindle orientation (parameter ORIENT1=1), thecontrol will act in conformity with case "B".The variables of cycle areG17 G87 Xp__ Yp__ I__ J__ Zp__ R__ F__ L__G18 G87 Z...

  • Page 171

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling171Fig. 18.1.13-118.1.13 Boring Cycle (Manual Operation on the Bottom Point) (G88)The variables used in the cycle areG17 G88 Xp__ Yp__ Zp__ R__ P__ F__ L__G18 G88 Zp__ Xp__ Yp__ R__ P__ F__ L__G19 G88 Yp__ Zp__ Xp__ R__ P__ F__ L__The spindle must be given ro...

  • Page 172

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling172Fig. 18.1.14-118.1.14 Boring Cycle (Dwell on the Bottom Point, Retraction with Feed) (G89)The variables used in the cycle areG17 G89 Xp__ Yp__ Zp__ R__ P__ F__ L__G18 G89 Zp__ Xp__ Yp__ R__ P__ F__ L__G19 G89 Yp__ Zp__ Xp__ R__ P__ F__ L__The operations of...

  • Page 173

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling17318.2 Notes to the Use of Canned Cycles for Drilling – The drilling cycle will be executed in cycle mode provided a block without code G containsone of the addressesXp, Yp, Zp, or ROtherwise, the drilling cycle will not be executed. – With dwell G04 P programmed...

  • Page 174

    19 Measurement Functions174Fig. 19.1-119 Measurement Functions19.1 Skip Function (G31)InstructionG31 v (F) (P)starts linear interpolation to the point of v coordinate. The motion is carried on until an externalskip signal (e.g. that of a touch-probe) arrives or the control reaches the end-point p...

  • Page 175

    19 Measurement Functions175Fig. 19.1-2Fig. 19.1-3Fig. 19.2-1returned if state G95, G51, G51.1, G68 or G16 is in effect.The value specified at coordinates v may be an incremental or an absolute one. If the next move-ment command following G31 block is specified in incremental coordinates, the moti...

  • Page 176

    19 Measurement Functions176The appropriate H value and the length compensation have to be set up prior to commencementof the measurement. – G37 is a single-shot instruction. – Cycle G37 will be executed invariably in the coordinate system of the current workpiece. – Parameters RAPDIST and A...

  • Page 177

    20 Safety Functions177Fig. 20.1-120 Safety Functions20.1 Programmable Stroke Check (G22, G23)InstructionG22 X Y Z I J K Pwill forbid to enter the area selected by the command. Meaning of addresses:X:limit along axis X in positive directionI:limit along axis X in negative directionY:limit along ax...

  • Page 178

    20 Safety Functions178Fig. 20.2-1of the tool at the limit. If, however, the compensation is not set up, the reference point of the toolholder will not be allowed into the prohibited area. It is advisable to set the border of the forbid-den area at the axis of the tool for the longest one. – Pro...

  • Page 179

    20 Safety Functions179Fig. 20.3-1Fig. 20.3-220.3 Stroke Check Before Movement The control differentiates two forbidden areas. The first is the parametric overtravel area whichdelimits the physically possible movement range of the machine. The extreme positions of thatrange are referred to as limi...

  • Page 180

    21 Custom Macro18021 Custom Macro21.1 The Simple Macro Call (G65)As a result of instructionG65 P(program number) L(number of repetitions) <argument assignment>the custom macro body (program) specified at address P (program number) will be called as manytimes as is the number specified at ad...

  • Page 181

    21 Custom Macro181In the above example, variable #8 has already been assigned a value by the second address J(value, -12), since the value of address E is also assigned to variable #8, the control returns errormessage 3064 BAD MACRO STATEMENT.A decimal point and a sign can also be transferred at ...

  • Page 182

    21 Custom Macro18221.2.2 Macro Modal Call From Each Block (G66.1)As a result of commandG66.1 P(program number) L(number of repetitions) <argument assignment>all subsequent blocks will be interpreted as argument assignment, and the macro of the numberspecified at address P will be called, an...

  • Page 183

    21 Custom Macro183Each NC block following G66.1 to a block containing code G67 will produce a macro call withthe rules of argument assignment described under point 2. No macro will be called if an emptyblock is found (e.g., N1240) where a reference is made to a single N address, or from a block c...

  • Page 184

    21 Custom Macro184The particular program number to be called by the calling M code has to be selected by parame-ters.M(9020)=code M calling program O9020M(9021)=code M calling program O9021 :M(9029)=code M calling program O9029Code M can specify invariably a type G65 call (i.e., a non-modal on...

  • Page 185

    21 Custom Macro18521.6 Subprogram Call with T CodeWith parameter T(9034)=1 set, the value of T written in the program will not be transferred tothe PLC, instead, the T code will initiate the call of subprogram No. O9034.Now blockGg Xx Yy Ttwill be equivalent to the following two blocks:#199=tGg X...

  • Page 186

    21 Custom Macro186If a call of a user G, M, S, T code is made in the subprogram, FGMAC=0, not enabled (executed as ordinary codes M, S, ... G) FGMAC=1, enabled, i.e. a new call is generated.21.9 Differences Between the Call of a Subprogram and the Call of a Macro – A macro call may include argu...

  • Page 187

    21 Custom Macro187Including only the interpolations, the sequence of executions will beOf the numbers in brackets, the first and the second ones are the numbers of the programs andblock being executed, respectively.Instruction G67 specified in block N14 will cancel the macro called in block N12 (...

  • Page 188

    21 Custom Macro18821.10 Format of Custom Macro BodyThe program format of a user macro is identical with that of a subprogram:O(program number):commands:M99The program number is irrelevant, but the program numbers between O9000 and O9034 are re-versed for special calls.21.11 Variables of the Progr...

  • Page 189

    21 Custom Macro189 – If the variable is used behind an address, its value may not exceed the range of values permis-sible for the particular address. If, e.g., #112=5630, reference M#112 will produce an er-ror message. – If the variable is used behind an address, its value will be rounded to ...

  • Page 190

    21 Custom Macro190Difference between a vacant variable and a 0 - value one in a conditional expression will be if #1=<vacant> if #1=0 #1 EQ #0 #1 EQ #0 * * fulfilled not fulfilled #...

  • Page 191

    21 Custom Macro19121.12.3 System VariablesThe system variables are fixed ones providing information about the states of the system.Interface input signals - #1000–#1015, #103216 interface input signals can be determined, one by one, by reading the system variables #1000through #1015. Name of s...

  • Page 192

    21 Custom Macro192Interface output signals - #1100–#1115, #113216 interface output signals can be issued, one by one, by assigning values to variables #1100through #1115. Name of system variables Interface input with reference to the PLC program ...

  • Page 193

    21 Custom Macro193Work zero-point offsets - #5201 through #5328The work zero-point offsets can be read at variables #5201 through #5328, or values can be assig-ned them.No. of value of variablevariableworkpiececoordinatesystem#5201common work zero point offset, axis 1common forall thecoo...

  • Page 194

    21 Custom Macro194permissible.Alarm - #3000By defining#3000=nnn(ALARM),a numerical error message (nnn=max. three decimal digits) and the text of error message can beprovided. The text must be put in (,) brackets. A message may not be longer than 25 characters.If the macro contains an error, i.e.,...

  • Page 195

    21 Custom Macro195Suppression of stop button, feed override, exact stop - #3004Under the conditions of suppression of feed stop function, the feed will stop after the stop buttonis pressed when the suppression is released.When the feedrate override is suppressed, the override takes the value of 1...

  • Page 196

    21 Custom Macro196number.Number of machined parts, number of parts to be machined - #3901, #3902The numbers of machined parts are collected in counter #3901 by the control. The contents of thecounter will be incremented by 1 upon the execution of each function M02, M30 or selected Mfunctions in p...

  • Page 197

    21 Custom Macro197Instantaneous positions in the coordinate system of the machine system nature of position information entry during variable motion #5021 instantaneous coordinate of axis 1 (G53) #5022 instantaneous...

  • Page 198

    21 Custom Macro198Fig. 21.12.3-1Fig. 21.12.3-2Tool-length compensation system nature of position information entry during variable motion #5081 length compensation on axis 1 #5082 length compensation on axis 2 : ...

  • Page 199

    21 Custom Macro199Servo lag system nature of position information entry during variable motion #5101 servo lag in axis 1 #5102 servo lag in axis 2 : not possible #...

  • Page 200

    21 Custom Macro200Additive arithmetic operationsAddition: #i = #j + #kThe code of the operation is +.As a result of the operation, variable #i will assume the sum of the values of variables #jand #k.Subtraction: #i = #j – #kThe code of the operation is –.As a result of the operation, variable...

  • Page 201

    21 Custom Macro201FunctionsSquare root: #i = SQRT #jThe code of operation is SQRT.As a result of operation, variable #i will assume the square root of variable #j. The valueof #j may not be a negative number.Sine: #i = SIN #jThe code of operation is SIN.As a result of operation, variable #i will ...

  • Page 202

    21 Custom Macro202Absolute value: #i = ABS #jThe code of the function is ABS.As a result of operation, variable #i will assume the absolute value of variable #j.Conversion from binary into binary-coded decimal: #i = BCD #jThe code of the function is BCD.As a result of operation, variable #i will ...

  • Page 203

    21 Custom Macro203The numbers refer to the sequence of executing the operations. Clearly, the above-mentioned ruleof precedence is applicable to the sequence of executing the operations at a given level ofbrackets.21.13.3 Logical OperationsThe programming language uses the following logical opera...

  • Page 204

    21 Custom Macro20421.13.7 Iteration: WHILE[<conditional expression>] Dom ... ENDmAs long as [<conditional expression>] is satisfied, the blocks following DOm up to block ENDmwill be repeatedly executed. In the instruction, the control will check wether the condition hasbeen fulfilled;...

  • Page 205

    21 Custom Macro205 – Pairs DOm ... ENDm can be nested into one another at three levels. : DO1 : DO2 : DO3 : : correct : END3 : END2 : END1 : – Pairs DOm ... ENDm may not be overlapped. : DO1 : DO2 : : ...

  • Page 206

    21 Custom Macro206 – No entry is permissible into a cycle from outside. : GOTO150 : DO1 : : false : N150 : END1 : or : DO1 : N150 : : false : END1 : GOTO150 : – A subprogram or a macro can be ca...

  • Page 207

    21 Custom Macro207Opening a peripheral - POPENnBefore issuing a data output command, the appropriate peripheral has to be opened, throughwhich the data output is to be performed. The appropriate peripheral is selected by number n.n = 1RS–232C interface of serial channeln = 31 memory of control...

  • Page 208

    21 Custom Macro208 Characters to be output areDecimal data output - DPRNT[...]All characters and digits will be output in ISO or ASCII code, depending on the parameter setting. – For the rules of character outputs, see instruction BPRNT. – For the output of variable values, the numbers of d...

  • Page 209

    21 Custom Macro209 Output of data with PRNT=0: Data output at PRNT=1: 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 --- X 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 --- Space 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 --- Space 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 --- Space 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 --- Space 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 --- 3 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 --- 5 0 0 1 0 1 1...

  • Page 210

    21 Custom Macro210Closing a peripheral - PCLOSnThe peripheral opened with command POPEN has to be closed with command PCLOS. Com-mand PCLOS has to be followed by the specification of the number of peripheral to be closed.At the time of closing, a % character is also sent to the peripheral, i.e., ...

  • Page 211

    21 Custom Macro211Fig. 21.15-1Fig. 21.15-2Example:SBSTM=0%O1000...N10 #100=50 N20 #101=100N30 G1 X#100 Y#101N40 #100=60 (definition after N30)N50 #101=120 (definition after N30)N60 G1 X#100 Y#101Definition commands in blocks N40 andN50 are executed after the movement ofblock N30.L Conclusions: ...

  • Page 212

    21 Custom Macro212Fig. 21.18-121.18 Pocket-milling Macro CycleInstructionG65 P9999 X Y Z I J K R F D E Q M S Twill start a pocket-milling cycle. For the execution of the cycle, macro of program number O9999has to be filled in the memory, from the PROM memory of the control.Prior to calling the cy...

  • Page 213

    21 Custom Macro213Fig. 21.18-2 E = width of cutting, in percent of milling diameterwith + sign, machining in counter-clockwise sense,with – sign, machining in clockwise sense.Two types of information can be specified at address E. The value of E defines the width of cut-ting in percent of milli...

  • Page 214

    21 Custom Macro214Fig. 21.18-3Fig. 21.18-4Unless the width of pocket and the rounding radii of corners have been specified, the tool diame-ter applied will be taken for the width of pocket (groove).If neither the length nor the width of pocket has been specified, only address R has been program-m...

  • Page 215

    21 Custom Macro215 – The value specified for the width of cutting is 0 or the tool radius called is 0 – The value of depth of cut is 0, i.e. 0 has been programmed at address Q.

  • Page 216

    Notes216Notes

  • Page 217

    Index in Alphabetical Order217Index in Alphabetical Order:#0 ............................ 189#10001–#13999 ................. 192#1000–#1015 ................... 191#1032 ......................... 191#1100–#1115 ................... 192#1132 ......................... 192#195 .....................

  • Page 218

    Index in Alphabetical Order218Format ......................... 10full arc of circle ................. 125full circle ...................... 125going around sharp corners ........ 126Going around the outside of a corner....................... 112-115high-speed high-precision path tracking............

  • Page 219

    Index in Alphabetical Order219FEEDCORN ................ 51, 62FEEDDIF ................ 51, 52, 61FEEDHIGH ................. 60, 63FEEDLIM ..................... 63FEEDLOW ................. 59, 63FEEDMAX .................... 60FINACCLEV ................ 60, 65FINACCTC .................... 57FINACCT...

  • Page 220

    Index in Alphabetical Order220ZAXOVEN .................... 63Part Program ..................... 9plane ........................... 81Plane Selection ................ 75, 81Point R ........................ 151position feedback ................. 85position indication ............. 79, 80Position in...

  • Page 221

    Index in Alphabetical Order221

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