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    NCT® 99TNCT® 2000TControls for LathesProgrammer's ManualFrom SW version x.060

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    Manufactured by NCT Automation kft.H1148 Budapest Fogarasi út 7: Address: H1631 Bp. pf.: 26F Phone: (+36 1) 467 63 00F Fax:(+36 1) 363 6605E-mail: nct@nct.huHome Page: www.nct.hu

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    3Contents1 Introduction ............................................................. 91.1 The Part Program ..................................................... 9Word ........................................................... .... 9Address Chain ....................................................

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    46.4.5 Automatic Corner Override (G62) ................................... 486.4.6 Internal Circular Cutting Override ................................... 496.5 Automatic Deceleration at Corners ...................................... 496.6 Limiting Accelerations in Normal Direction along the Path ...

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    513.3.3 Jump within the Main Program .................................... 7514 The Tool Compensation ................................................. 7614.1 Reference to Tool Offset .............................................. 7614.2 Modification of Tool Offset Values from the Program (G10) . ...

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    618.1.2 Counter Tapping Cycle (G84.1) .................................. 15918.1.3 Fine Boring Cycle (G86.1) ...................................... 16018.1.4 Canned Cycle for Drilling Cancel (G80) ............................ 16118.1.5 Drilling, Spot Boring Cycle (G81) ..............................

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    722.12.2 Common Variables ........................................... 19422.12.3 System Variables ............................................. 19522.13 Instructions of the Programming Language ............................. 20422.13.1 Definition, Substitution ........................................

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    8 © Copyright NCT October 15, 2004The Publisher reserves all rights for contentsof this Manual. No reprinting, even in ex-tracts, is permissible unless our written con-sent is obtained.The text of this Manual has been compiledand checked with utmost care, yet we as-sume no liability for possibl...

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    1 Introduction91 Introduction1.1 The Part ProgramThe Part Program is a set of instructions that can be interpreted by the control system in order tocontrol the operation of the machine.The Part Program consists of blocks which, in turn, comprise words.Word: Address and DataEach word is made up of...

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    1 Introduction10BlockA block is made up of words.The blocks are separated by characters s (Line Feed) in the memory. The use of a block numberis not mandatory in the blocks. To distinguish the end of block from the beginning of anotherblock on the screen, each new block begins in a new line, with...

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    1 Introduction11DNC ChannelA program contained in an external unit (e.g., in a computer) can also be executed without storingit in the control's memory. Now the control will read the program, instead of the memory, fromthe external data medium through the RS232C interface. That link is referred t...

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    1 Introduction12Fig. 1.2-1Fig. 1.2-2Fig. 1.2-31.2 Fundamental TermsThe InterpolationThe control system can move the tool along straight linesand arcs in the course of machining. These activities willbe hereafter referred to as "interpolation".Tool movement along a straight line:Program:...

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    1 Introduction13Fig. 1.2-4Fig. 1.2-5Reference PointThe reference point is a fixed point on the machine-tool. After power-on of the machine, theslides have to be moved to the reference point. Afterwards the control system will be able to inter-pret data of absolute coordinates as well.Coordinate S...

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    1 Introduction14Fig. 1.2-6Incremental Coordinate SpecificationIn the case of an incremental data specification, the controlsystem will interpret the coordinate data in such a way thatthe tool will travel a distance measured from its instanta-neous position:U–50 W–125The code of incremental da...

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    1 Introduction15Fig. 1.2-7Fig. 1.2-8Miscellaneous FunctionsA number of switching operations have to be carried out in the course of machining. For example,starting the spindle, turning on the coolant. Those operations can be performed with M (miscella-neous) functions. E.g., in the series of inst...

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    2 Controlled Axes16Fig. 2.1-12 Controlled AxesNumber of Axes (in basic configuration)2 axesIn expanded configuration6 additional axes (8 axes altogether)Number of axes to be moved simultaneously8 axes (with linear interpolation)2.1 Names of AxesThe names of controlled axes can be defined in the p...

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    2 Controlled Axes17perform the conversion.The rotational axes are always provided with degrees as units of measure.The input increment system of the control is regarded as the smallest unit to be entered. It canbe selected as parameter. There are three increment systems available IS-A, IS-B and ...

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    3 Preparatory Functions (G codes)183 Preparatory Functions (G codes)The type of command in the given block will be determined by address G and the number fol-lowing it.The Table below contains the G codes interpreted by the control system, the groups and functionsthereof.G codeGroupFunctionPageG0...

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    3 Preparatory Functions (G codes)G codeGroupFunctionPage19G40*07Tool nose radius compensation cancel82G41Tool nose radius compensation left82, 82,86G42Tool nose radius compensation right82, 82,86G50*11Scaling cancel111G51Scaling111G50.1*18Programable mirror image cancel111G51.1Programable mirror ...

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    3 Preparatory Functions (G codes)G codeGroupFunctionPage20G79End face turning cycle129G80*09Canned cycle for drilling cancel161G81Drilling, spot boring cycle,161G82Drilling, counter boring cycle162G83Peck drilling cycle163G83.1High Speed Peck Drilling Cycle158G84Tapping cycle164G84.1Counter tappi...

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    3 Preparatory Functions (G codes)21within a particular block will produce error message 3005 ILLEGAL G CODE.

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    4 The Interpolation22Fig. 4.1-14 The Interpolation4.1 Positioning (G00)The series of instructionsG00 vrefers to a positioning in the current coordinate system.It moves to the coordinate v. Designation v (vector) refers here (and hereinafter) to all controlledaxes used on the machine-tool. (They m...

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    4 The Interpolation23Fig. 4.2-1Fig. 4.2-2Feed along the axis X isFeed along the axis Z iswhere x, z are the displacements programmed alongthe respective axes, L is the vectorial length of pro-grammed displacement:G01 X192 Z120 F0.15The feed along a rotational axis is interpreted in units ofdegree...

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    4 The Interpolation24Fig. 4.3-1Fig. 4.3-24.3 Circular and Spiral Interpolation (G02, G03)The series of instructions specify circular interpolation.A circular interpolation is accomplished in the plane selected by commands G17, G18, G19 inclockwise or counter-clockwise direction (with G02 or G03, ...

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    4 The Interpolation25Fig. 4.3-3Fig. 4.3-4Here and hereinafter, the meanings of Xp, Yp, and Zp are:Xp: Axis X or its parallel axis,Yp: Axis Y or its parallel axis,Zp: Axis Z or its parallel axis.The values of Xp, Yp, and Zp are the end-point coordinates of the circle in the given coordinatesystem,...

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    4 The Interpolation26Fig. 4.3-5Fig. 4.3-6Fig. 4.3-7The feed along the path can be programmed at address F,pointing in the direction of the circle tangent, and beingconstant all along the path. L Notes: – I0, J0, K0 may be omitted, e.g. G03 X0 Z100 I-100 – When each of Xp, Yp and Zp is omitted...

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    4 The Interpolation27Fig. 4.3-8Fig. 4.3-9If the specified circle radius is smaller than half the distan-ce of straight line inter-connecting the start point with theend point, the control will regard the specified radius of thecircle as the start-point radius, and will interpolate a circleof a va...

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    4 The Interpolation28Fig. 4.4-1Fig. 4.4-24.4 Equal Lead Thread Cutting (G33)The instructionG33 v F QG33 v E Qwill define a straight or taper thread cutting of equal lead.The coordinates of maximum two axes can be written for vector v. The control will cut a taperedthread if two coordinated data a...

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    4 The Interpolation29Fig. 4.4-3Fig. 4.5-1An example of programming a thread-cutting:G0 G90 X50 Z40U-30G33 U10 W38 F2G0 U20W-38In the example above X is specified in diameter. L Notes: – The control returns error message 3020 DATA DEFINI-TION ERROR G33 if more than two coordinatesare specified a...

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    4.6 Polar Coordinate Interpolation (G12.1, G13.1)30Fig. 4.6-14.6 Polar Coordinate Interpolation (G12.1, G13.1)Polar coordinate interpolation is a control operation method, in case of which the work describedin a Cartesian coordinate system moves its contour path by moving a linear and a rotary ax...

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    4.6 Polar Coordinate Interpolation (G12.1, G13.1)31Programming length coordinates in the course of polar coordinate interpolationIn the switched-on state of the polar coordinate interpolation length coordinate data may be pro-grammed on both axes belonging to the selected plane; The rotary axis i...

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    4.6 Polar Coordinate Interpolation (G12.1, G13.1)32Fig. 4.6-2Fig. 4.6-3The diagram beside shows the cases whenstraight lines parallel to axis X (1, 2, 3, 4) areprogrammed. )x move belongs to the pro-grammed feed within a time unit. Differentangular moves (n1, n2, n3, n4) belong to )xmove for each...

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    4.6 Polar Coordinate Interpolation (G12.1, G13.1)33N090 G12.1(polar coordinate interpolation on)N100 G42 G1 X100 F1000N110 C30N120 G3 X60 C50 I-20 J0N130 G1 X-40N140 X-100 C20N150 C-30N160 G3 X-60 C-50 R20N170 G1 X40N180 X100 C-20N190 C0N200 G40 G0 X150N210 G13.1(polar coordinate interpolation of...

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    4.7 Cylindrical Interpolation (G7.1)34Fig. 4.7-14.7 Cylindrical Interpolation (G7.1)Should a cylindrical cam grooving be milled on a cylinder mantle, cylindrical interpolation is tobe used. In this case the rotation axis of the cylinder and of a rotary axis must coincide. The rotaryaxis movements...

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    4.7 Cylindrical Interpolation (G7.1)35Fig. 4.7-228 65118005..mmmm⋅°°⋅=π – Switch-on of cylindrical interpolation (command G7.1 Qr) is only possible in state G40. – Should G41 or G42 be switched on in cylindrical interpolation mode, G40 must be program-med before switching cylindrical i...

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    5 The Coordinate Data36Fig. 5.1-15 The Coordinate Data5.1 Absolute and Incremental Programming (G90, G91), Operator IThe input coordinate data can be specified as absolute or incremental values. In an absolute speci-fication, the coordinates of the end point have to be specified for the control, ...

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    5 The Coordinate Data37unit prevailing at the time of power-off will be effective after power-on.The change of the unit will affect the following items:– Coordinate and compensation data,– Feed,– Constant surface speed– Position, compensation and feed displays.5.3 Specification and Value ...

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    5 The Coordinate Data38Fig. 5.4-1The value ranges of angular coordinates:increment systemvalue range of angular coordinatesunit of measure IR-A± 0.01-999999.99degreesIR-B± 0.001-99999.999IR-C± 0.0001-9999.99995.4 Programming in Radius or DiameterSince the section of a turned work is generallya...

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    5 The Coordinate Data395.5 Rotary Axis Roll-overThis function can be used in case of rotary axes, i.e., if address A, B or C is selected for operatingrotary axis. Handling of roll-over means, that the position on the given axis is not registered bet-ween plus and minus infinity, but regarding the...

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    5 The Coordinate Data40Movement of rotary axis in case of absolute programmingIn case of absolute data input, when handling of roll-over is enabled for rotary axis (ROLLOV-EN_x=1), the axis never moves more than that set at appropriate parameter ROLLAMNT_x. Thatis, if, e.g., ROLLAMNT_C=360000 (36...

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    5 The Coordinate Data41Movement of rotary axis in case of incremental programmingIn case of programming incremental data input the direction of movement is always accordingto the programmed sign.The appropriate parameter ROLLAMNT_x to be applied for movement setting can be set at para-meter 0247 ...

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    6 The Feed42Fig. 6.2-16 The Feed6.1 Feed in Rapid TraverseG00 commands a positioning in rapid traverse.The value of rapid traverse for each axis is set by parameter by the builder of the machine. Therapid traverse may be different for each axis.When several axes are performing rapid traverse moti...

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    6 The Feed436.2.1 Feed per Minute (G94) and Feed per Revolution (G95)The unit of feed can be specified in the program with the G94 and G95 codes:G94: Feed per minuteG95: Feed per revolutionThe term "feed/minute" refers to a feed specified in units mm/minute, inch/minute or degree /minut...

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    6 The Feed44The Table below shows the maximum programmable range of values at address F, for variouscases. input units output units incrementsystem value range of address F unitmmmmIS-A0.001 - 250000mmordeg/minIS-B0.0001 - 25000IS-C0.00001 - 2500IS-A0.0001 - 5000mmordeg/revIS-B0.00001 - 500IS-C0....

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    6 The Feed45Fig. 6.3-1The maximum jog feed can also be clamped separately by parameters for human response times.6.3 Acceleration/Deceleration. Taking F Feed into AccountAcceleration and deceleration in case of movement start and stop is needed in order to minimizeor level the effect of powers me...

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    6 The Feed46Fig. 6.3-2Fig. 6.3-3Fig. 6.3-4In case of bell-shaped acceleration thevalue of acceleration changes, i.e. it in-creases in the course of acceleration un-til it reaches the acceleration value set(parameter ACCn) as well as it de-creases linearly before reaching the tar-get speed. Conclu...

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    6 The Feed47Fig. 6.4-16.4 Feed Control FunctionsThe override control functions are required when corners are to be machined, and/or when theparticular technology requires the override and stop switches to be canceled.When machining corners, with continuous cut-ting applied, the slides are - on ac...

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    6 The Feed48Fig. 6.4.5-1Fig. 6.4.5-2Fig. 6.4.5-36.4.5 Automatic Corner Override (G62)Modal function canceled by any of codes G61, G63 or G64.When inside corners are being machined,higher forces are acting upon the tool beforeand after the corners. To prevent the overloadof the tool and developing...

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    6 The Feed49Fig. 6.4.6-1Fig. 6.5-16.4.6 Internal Circular Cutting OverrideWith the tool nose radius compensation on (G41, G42), thecontrol will automatically reduce the feed in machining theinside surface of an arc so that the programmed feed willbe effective along the cutting radius. The feed in...

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    6 The Feed50Fig. 6.5-2Fa r=⋅Fig. 6.6-1Corner detection and deceleration is executed as the effect of parameter 1205 DIRANGLE. If theparameter is set to 9, it never decelerates.If angle " exceeds thevalue enabled in de-gree at parameter1205 DIRANGLE atthe meeting point ofblocks N1, N2 (Fig....

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    7 The Dwell517 The Dwell (G04)The(G94) G04 P....command will program the dwell in seconds.The range of P is 0.001 to 99999.999 seconds.The(G95) G04 P....command will program the dwell in terms of spindle revolutions.The range of P is 0.001 to 99999.999 revolutions.Depending on parameter SECOND, t...

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    8 The Reference Point52Fig. 8-1 8 The Reference PointThe reference point is a distinguished positionon the machine-tool, to which the control caneasily return. The location of the referencepoint can be defined as a parameter in the co-ordinate system of the machine. Work coordi-nate system can be...

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    8 The Reference Point538.2 Automatic Return to Reference Points 2, 3, 4 (G30)Series of instructionsG30 v Pwill send the axes of coordinates defined at the addresses of vector v to the reference pointdefined at address P.P1=reference point 1P2=reference point 2P3=reference point 3P4=reference poi...

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    8 The Reference Point54Fig. 8.3-1G29. If coordinate v has an incremental value, the displacement will be measured from the inter-mediate point.When the tool nose radius compensation is set up, it will move to the end point by taking into ac-count the compensation vector.A non-modal code.An exampl...

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    9 Coordinate Systems, Plane Selection55Fig. 9-1Fig. 9.1-19 Coordinate Systems, Plane SelectionThe position, to which the tool is to be moved, is specified with coordinate data in the program.When 2 axes are available (X, Z), the position of the tool is expressed by two coordinate dataX____ Z____ ...

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    9 Coordinate Systems, Plane Selection56Fig. 9.2.1-19.1.2 Positioning in the Machine Coordinate System (G53)InstructionG53 vwill move the tool to the position of v coordinate in the machine coordinate system. – Regardless of states G90, G91, coordinates v are always treated as absolute coordinat...

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    9 Coordinate Systems, Plane Selection57Fig. 9.2.1-2Fig. 9.2.2-1Furthermore, all work coordinate system can be offset with a common value. It can also be en-tered in setting mode.9.2.2 Selecting the Work Coordinate SystemThe various work coordinate system can be selected with instructions G54...G5...

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    9 Coordinate Systems, Plane Selection58Fig. 9.2.2-2After a change of the work coordinate system,the tool position will be displayed in the newcoordinate system. For instance, there are twoworkpieces on the table. The first work coordi-nate system (G54) has been assigned to zeropoint of one of the...

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    9 Coordinate Systems, Plane Selection59Fig. 9.2.4-1Fig. 9.2.4-29.2.4 Creating a New Work Coordinate System (G92)InstructionG92 vwill establish a new work coordinate system insuch a way that coordinate point v of the newsystem will be a selected point - e.g. the tool'stip (if a length compensation...

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    9 Coordinate Systems, Plane Selection60Fig. 9.3-1Fig. 9.3-29.3 Local Coordinate SystemWhen writing part programs, it is sometimes more convenient to specify the coordinate data ina "local" coordinate system instead of the work coordinate system.InstructionG52 vwill create a local coordi...

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    9 Coordinate Systems, Plane Selection61Fig. 9.3-3Fig. 9.4-1Programming instruction G92 will delete the offsets produced by instruction G52 on the axesspecified inG92 - as if command G52 v0 had been issued.Whenever the tool is at point of X=240, Z=200coordinates in the X, Z work coordinatesystem, ...

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    9 Coordinate Systems, Plane Selection62the basic axes:The XY plane will be selected by G17,the XY plane will be selected by G17 X,the UY plane will be selected by G17 U,the XV plane will be selected by G17 V,the ZX plane will be selected by G18,the WX plane will be selected by G18 W.The selected ...

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    10 The Spindle Function63Fig. 10.2-110 The Spindle Function10.1 Spindle Speed Command (Code S)With a number of max. five digits written at address S, the NC will give a code to the PLC. De-pending on the design of the given machine-tool, the PLC may interpret address S as a code oras a data of re...

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    10 The Spindle Function6410.2.1 Constant Surface Speed Control Command (G96, G97)CommandG96 Sswitches constant surface speed control function on. The constant surface speed must be specifiedat address S in the unit of measure given in the above table.CommandG97 Scancels constant surface speed con...

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    10 The Spindle Function6510.2.3 Selecting an Axis for Constant Surface Speed ControlThe axis, which position the constant surface speed is calculated from, is selected by parameter1182 AXIS. The logic axis number must be written at the parameter.If other than the selected axis is to be used, the ...

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    10 The Spindle Function6610.5 Spindle Positioning (Indexing)A spindle positioning is only feasible after the spindle position control loop has been closed afterorientation. Accordingly, this function is used for closing the loop. The loop will be opened byrotation command M3 or M4.If the value of...

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    10 The Spindle Function67Fig. 10.6-2Fig. 10.6-1Start of Spindle Speed Fluctuation DetectionAs the effect of new rotation speed the detection is suspended by the control. The speed fluctua-tion detection starts when - the current spindle speedreaches the specified spindlespeed within the toleranc...

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    10 The Spindle Function68Fig. 10.6-3Detecting ErrorIn the course of detection the control sends error message in case the deviation between currentand specified spindle speed exceeds- the tolerance limit specified by value "r" inpercent of the command value and- also the absolute tolera...

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    11 Tool Function6911 Tool FunctionThe first two digits of the number written at address T form the tool number, while the secondtwo digits form the offset number.Interpretation of the code written at address T:Meaning of command T1236: Activate tool No. 12 and use offset number 36. – Leading ze...

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    12 Miscellaneous and Auxiliary Functions7012 Miscellaneous and Auxiliary Functions12.1 Miscellaneous Functions (Codes M)With a numerical value of max. 3 digits specified behind address M, the NC will transfer the codeto the PLC.When a movement command and a miscellaneous function (M) are programm...

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    12 Miscellaneous and Auxiliary Functions7112.2 Auxiliary Function (Codes A, B, C)Max. three digits can be specified at each of addresses A, B, C provided one (or all) of those add-resses is (are) selected as auxiliary function(s) in parameters. The value specified for the auxiliaryfunction will b...

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    13 Part Program Configuration7213 Part Program ConfigurationThe structure of the part program has been described already in the introduction presenting thecodes and formats of the programs in the memory. This Section will discuss the procedures of or-ganizing the part programs.13.1 Sequence Numbe...

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    13 Part Program Configuration73main programO0010............subprogramcommentexecution of (main-)program O0010M98 P0011–––>O0011callin g subprogramO0011..................e x ecution o fsubprogram O0011next block<–––M99return to the callingprogram............resumption of program...

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    13 Part Program Configuration74main programO0010..................subprogramcommentexecution of programO0010N101 M98 P0011–––>O0011call ing subprogramO0011..................executio n o fsubprogram O0011N102 ......<–––M99return to the nextblock of the callingprogram............r...

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    13 Part Program Configuration7513.3.3 Jump within the Main ProgramThe use of instructionM99in the main program will produce an unconditional jump to the first block of the main program,and the execution of the program will be resumed there. The use of this instruction results in anendless cycle:T...

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    14 The Tool Compensation7614 The Tool CompensationIn order not to take the overhang values, tool radii ect. belonging to the different tools into ac-count, the tool characteristics are gathered in a table, namely in the offset table. In case a tool iscalled in the part program, the place in the o...

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    14 The Tool Compensation77Fig. 14.1-1Fig. 14.1 -2Offsets in X, (Y), Z directions and ra-dius compensations (R) can be twotypes: Geometry and wear offsets.Geometry value: Length/radius of themeasured tool, signed number.Wear value: Amount of wear occurringin the course of machining, signed num-ber...

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    14 The Tool Compensation78Fig. 14.1-3Value limits of geometric and wear offset values:input unitsystemoutput unitsystemincrementsystemgeometry valuewear valuedi-mensionmmmmIR-A±0.01 ÷99999.99±0.01÷163.80mmIR-B±0.001÷9999.999±0.001÷16.380IR-C±0.0001÷999.9999±0.0001÷1.6380inchmmIR-A±0....

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    14 The Tool Compensation79Fig. 14.1-4Fig. 14.1-5The compensation code called is modal, thus the control takes the same offset amounts into ac-count until an other T command is received, i.e. when the compensation values are read bymeans of a T command, in this case the modification of the offset...

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    14 The Tool Compensation80Fig. 14.3-114.2 Modification of Tool Offset Values from the Program (G10)BlockG10 L P X Y Z R QG10 L P XI YI ZI RI Q orG10 L P U V W C Qcan be used for modifying the tool offset values from the program. G10 is a single-shot command.The addresses and their values have the...

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    14 The Tool Compensation81Fig. 14.3-2Let us see the above example:(T0000)N10 G0 (G90) X700 Z350N20 X300 Z150 T202In this case block N30 is left and the commands of blocks N20 and N30 are pooled. In block N20in the course of movement it is already the imaginary tool nose led to the position of X=3...

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    14 The Tool Compensation82Fig. 14.4-1Fig. 14.4-214.4 Tool Nose Radius Compensation (G38, G39, G40, G41, G42)If only tool length compensation is used, it isnot possible to turn an accurate tapered line ora circular arc. In this case the imaginary toolnose is guided by the control along the pro-gra...

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    14 The Tool Compensation83Fig. 14.4-3Fig. 14.4-4The compensation vectors are computed in the plane selected by instructions G17, G18, G19.This is the plane of tool nose radius compensation. Movements outside of this plane are not in-fluenced by compensation. If, e.g., plane X, Z is selected in st...

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    14 The Tool Compensation84The above points refer to the specification of positive tool radius compensation, but its value maybe negative, too. It has a practical meaning if, e.g., a given subprogram is to be used for definingthe contours of a "female" part and of a "male" one ...

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    14 The Tool Compensation85Fig. 14.4-5An auxiliary data is to be introduced be-fore embarking on the discussion of thedetails of the compensation computa-tion. It is """, the angle at the corner oftwo consecutive blocks viewing from theworkpiece side. The direction of " de-pend...

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    14 The Tool Compensation86Fig. 14.4.1-114.4.1 Start up of Tool Nose Radius CompensationAfter power-on, end of program or resetting to the beginning of the program, the control will as-sume state G40. The offset vector will be deleted, the path of the imaginary tool nose will coin-cide with the pr...

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    14 The Tool Compensation87Fig. 14.4.1-2Fig. 14.4.1-3Fig. 14.4.1-4Going around the outside of a corner at an obtuse angle, 90°#"#180°Going around the outside of a corner at an acute angle, 0°#"<90°Special instances of starting up the radius compensation:If values are assigned to I...

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    14 The Tool Compensation88Fig. 14.4.1-5Fig. 14.4.1-6Fig. 14.4.1-7N110 G42 G1 X120 Z–80 I70 K50N120 Z100 ...In this case the control will always compute a point of in-tersection regardless of whether an inside or an outside cor-ner is to be machined.Unless a point of intersection is found, the c...

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    14 The Tool Compensation89Fig. 14.4.1-8If zero displacement is programmed (or such is produced) in the block containing the activationof compensation (G41, G42), the control will not perform any movement but will carry on themachining along the above-mentioned strategy....N10 G40 G18 G0 X0 Z0N15 ...

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    14 The Tool Compensation90Fig. 14.4.2-114.4.2 Rules of Tool Nose Radius Compensation in Offset ModeIn offset mode the compensation vectors will be calculated continuously between interpolationblocks G00, G01, G02, G03 (see the basic instances) until more than one block will be inserted,that do no...

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    14 The Tool Compensation91Fig. 14.4.2-2Fig. 14.4.2-3It may occur that no intersection point is ob-tained with some tool nose radius values. Inthis case the control comes to a halt duringexecution of the previous interpolation and re-turns error message 3046 NO INTERSECTIONG41, G42.Going around th...

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    14 The Tool Compensation92Fig. 14.4.2-4Fig. 14.4.2-5Going around the outside of a corner at an acute angle, 0°#"<90°Special instances of offset mode:If zero displacement is programmed (or such is obtained) in the selected plane in a block in offsetmode, a perpendicular vector will be po...

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    14 The Tool Compensation93Fig. 14.4.3-1Fig. 14.4.3-214.4.3 Canceling of Offset ModeCommand G40 will cancel the computation of tool radius compensation. Such a command canbe issued with linear interpolation only. The control will return error message 3042 G40 IN G2,G3 to any attempt to program G40...

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    14 The Tool Compensation94Fig. 14.4.3-3Fig. 14.4.3-4Fig. 14.4.3-5Going around the outside of a corner at an acute angle, 0°#"<90°Special instances of canceling offset mode:If values are assigned to I, J, K in the compensation cancel block (G40) - but only to those in theselected plane (...

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    14 The Tool Compensation95Fig. 14.4.3-6Fig. 14.4.3-7Fig. 14.4.3-8Unless a point of intersection is found, the control willmove, at a right angle, to the end point of the previous in-terpolation.If the compensation is canceled in a block in which nomovement is programmed in the selected plane, an ...

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    14 The Tool Compensation96Fig. 14.4.4-114.4.4 Change of Offset Direction While in the Offset ModeThe direction of tool-radius compensation computation is given in the Table below.Radius compensation: PositiveRadius compensation: NegativeG41leftrightG42rightleftThe direction of offset mode can be ...

  • Page 97

    14 The Tool Compensation97Fig. 14.4.4-2Fig. 14.4.4-3Fig. 14.4.4-4Unless a point of intersection is found in a li-near-to-linear transition, the path of the toolwill be:Unless a point of intersection is found in a li-near-to-circular transition, the path of the toolwill be:Unless a point of inters...

  • Page 98

    14 The Tool Compensation98Fig. 14.4.5-1Fig. 14.4.5-214.4.5 Programming Vector Hold (G38)Under the action of commandG38 vthe control will hold the last compensation vector between the previous interpolation and G38block in offset mode, and will implement it at the end of G38 block irrespective of ...

  • Page 99

    14 The Tool Compensation99Fig. 14.4.6-1Fig. 14.4.6-2The start and end points of the arc will begiven by a tool-radius long vector perpendicu-lar to the end point of the path of previous in-terpolation and by a tool-radius vector perpen-dicular to the start point of the next one, re-spectively. G3...

  • Page 100

    14 The Tool Compensation100Fig. 14.4.7-1Fig. 14.4.7-214.4.7 General Information on Tool Nose Radius CompensationIn offset mode (G41, G42), the control will always have to compute the compensation vectorsbetween two interpolation blocks in the selected plane. In practice it may be necessary to pro...

  • Page 101

    14 The Tool Compensation101Fig. 14.4.7-3Fig. 14.4.7-4Fig. 14.4.7-5If no cut is feasible in direction Y unless the radius compensation isset up, the following procedure may be adopted:...G18 G91...N110 G41 G0 X140 Z50 N120 G1 Y-40N130 X80...Now the tool will have a correct path as is shown in the ...

  • Page 102

    14 The Tool Compensation102Fig. 14.4.7-6Fig. 14.4.7-7Fig. 14.4.7-8next interpolation. If the previous or next interpolation is a circular one, the control will returnerror message 3041 AFTER G2, G3 ILLEG. BLOCK. For example:...G91 G18 G41...N110 G1 X–100 Z80N120 G92 X0 Z0N130 X100 Z80...If comm...

  • Page 103

    14 The Tool Compensation103Fig. 14.4.7-9Fig. 14.4.7-10A new compensation value can also becalled at address T in offset mode. In theevent of a reversal in the sign of the ra-dius, the direction of motion along thecontours will be reversed (see earlier).Otherwise, the following procedure willbe ap...

  • Page 104

    14 The Tool Compensation104Fig. 14.4.7-11Fig. 14.4.7-12Fig. 14.4.7-13A particular program detail or subprogram may be used also for machining a male or femalework-piece with positive or negative radius compensation, respectively, or vice-versa. Let us review the following small prog-ram detail:.....

  • Page 105

    14 The Tool Compensation105Fig. 14.4.7-14Fig. 14.4.7-15Fig. 14.4.8-1When offset mode is canceled by programming I, J, K, a si-milar condition will emerge:...G18 G90 G41...N090 G1 Z60N100 G2 I-60N110 G40 G1 X360 Z120 I-60 K-60...The tool center covers a full arc of a circle from point P1 topoint P...

  • Page 106

    14 The Tool Compensation106Fig. 14.4.8-2Fig. 14.4.8-3To avoid this, the control performs an interference check when parameter INTERFER is set to 1.Now the control will check that the condition -90°#n#+90° is fulfilled for angle n between theprogrammed displacement and the one compensated with t...

  • Page 107

    14 The Tool Compensation107Fig. 14.4.8-4If parameter ANGLAL is set to 0, the control will not return an error message, but will automati-cally attempt to correct the contour in order to avoid overcutting. The procedure of compensationis as follows.Each of blocks A, B and C are in offset mode. The...

  • Page 108

    14 The Tool Compensation108Fig. 14.4.8-5Fig. 14.4.8-6Fig. 14.4.8-7Machining an inside corner with a radius smallerthan the tool radius. The control returns error mes-sage 3048 INTERFERENCE ALARM or else overcut-ting would occur.Cutting a step smaller than the tool ra-dius along an arc. If parame...

  • Page 109

    14 The Tool Compensation109Fig. 14.4.8-8In the above example an interference error isreturned again because the displacement of thecompensated path in interpolation B is oppo-site to the programmed one.

  • Page 110

    15 Special Transformations110Fig. 15.1-115 Special Transformations15.1 Mirror Image for Double Turret (G68)Command G68 switches double turret mirror image on, while commandG69 cancels it.This function can be used for theprogramming of two facing tur-rets or tool posts. The first toolpost, tool po...

  • Page 111

    15 Special Transformations111Fig. 15.2-1Fig. 15.2-215.2 Scaling (G50, G51)CommandG51 v Pcan be used for scaling a programmed shape.P1...P4:Points specified in the part programP1'...P4':Points after scalingP0:Center of scalingThe coordinates of the scaling center can be entered at co-ordinates of ...

  • Page 112

    15 Special Transformations112Fig. 15.3-1coordinate data specifications are set up.Using G90, G91 or operator I, the v coordinates of the axes of the mirror image can be specifiedas absolute or incremental data.No mirror image will be on the axis, for the address of which no value has been assigne...

  • Page 113

    16 Automatic Geometric Calculations113Fig. 16.1-1Fig. 16.1-2Fig. 16.1-316 Automatic Geometric Calculations16.1 Programming Chamfer and Corner RoundThe control is able to insert chamfer or rounding between two blocks containing linear (G01) orcircle interpolation (G02, G03) automatically.A chamfer...

  • Page 114

    16 Automatic Geometric Calculations114Fig. 16.2-1L Note: – Chamfer or rounding can only be programmed between the coordinates of the selected plane(G17, G18, G19), otherwise error message 3081 DEFINITION ERROR ,C ,R is sent bythe control. – Chamfer or corner rounding can only be applied betwe...

  • Page 115

    16 Automatic Geometric Calculations115Fig. 16.2-2Fig. 16.2-3L Note: ) In case the coordinate system is situated like on the figure besidethe interpretation of angle is modified as seen in the enclosedfigure (positive direction is clockwise).For example:(G18 G90) G1 X60 Z120 ... Z70 ,A150(this spe...

  • Page 116

    16 Automatic Geometric Calculations116Fig. 16.3.1-116.3 Intersection Calculations in the Selected PlaneIntersection calculations discussed here are only executed by the control when tool radius com-pensation (G41 or G42 offset mode) is on. If eventually no tool radius compensation is neededin the...

  • Page 117

    16 Automatic Geometric Calculations117Fig. 16.3.1-2Fig. 16.3.1-3Fig. 16.3.1-4For example:(G18) G90 G41 ...G0 X20 Z90N10 G1 ,A150N20 X40 Z10 ,A225G0 Z0...Block N10 can also be given with the coordi-nates of a point of the straight line:(G18) G90 G41 ...G0 X20 Z90N10 G1 X66.188 Z50N20 X40 Z10 ,A225...

  • Page 118

    16 Automatic Geometric Calculations118Fig. 16.3.2-1Fig. 16.3.2-216.3.2 Linear-circular IntersectionIf a circular block is given after a linear block in a way that the end and center position coordina-tes as well as the radius of the circle are specified, i.e., the circle is determined over, then ...

  • Page 119

    16 Automatic Geometric Calculations119Fig. 16.3.2-3Fig. 16.3.2-4Let us see the following example:%O9981N10 (G18) G42 G0 X40 Z100 S200 M3N20 G1 X-40 Z-30N30 G3 X80 Z20 I-10 K20 R50 Q-1N40 G40 G0 X120N50 Z120N60 M30%%O9982N10 (G18) G42 G0 X40 Z100 S200 M3N20 G1 X-40 Z-30N30 G3 X80 Z20 I-10 K20 R50 ...

  • Page 120

    16 Automatic Geometric Calculations120Fig. 16.3.3-1Fig. 16.3.3-216.3.3 Circular-linear IntersectionIf a linear block is given after a circular block in a way that the straight line is defined over, i.e.,both its end point coordinate and the angle are specified, then the control calculates inters...

  • Page 121

    16 Automatic Geometric Calculations121Fig. 16.3.3-3Fig. 16.3.3-4Let us see an example:%O9983N10 (G18) G0 X90 X0 M3 S200N20 G42 G1 Z50N30 G3 X0 Z-50 R50N40 G1 X85.714 Z-50 ,A171.87 Q-1N50 G40 G0 X140 N60 Z90N70 M30%%O9984N10 (G18) G0 X90 X0 M3 S200N20 G42 G1 Z50N30 G3 X0 Z-50 R50N40 G1 X85.714 Z-5...

  • Page 122

    16 Automatic Geometric Calculations122Fig. 16.3.4-1Fig. 16.3.4-216.3.4 Circular-circular IntersectionIf two successive circular blocks are specified so that the end point, the center coordinates as wellas the radius of the second block are given, i.e., it is determined over the control calculates...

  • Page 123

    16 Automatic Geometric Calculations123Fig. 16.3.4-3Fig. 16.3.4-4Let us see the following example:%O9985N10 (G18) G0 X20 Z200 M3 S200N20 G42 G1 Z180N30 G3 X-80 Z130 R-50N40 X174.892 Z90 I30 K50 R70 Q–1N50 G40 G0 X200N60 Z200N70 M30%%O9986N10 (G18) G0 X20 Z200 M3 S200N20 G42 G1 Z180N30 G3 X-80 Z1...

  • Page 124

    16 Automatic Geometric Calculations124Fig. 16.3.5-116.3.5 Chaining of Intersection CalculationsIntersection calculation blocks can be chained, i.e., more successive blocks can be selected forintersection calculation. The control calculates intersection till straight lines or circles determinedove...

  • Page 125

    17.1.1 Cutting Cycle (G77)125Fig. 17.1.1-1Fig. 17.1.1-217 Canned Cycles for Turning17.1 Single CyclesThe single cycles are the cutting cycle G77, the simple thread cutting cycle G78 and the end facecutting cycle G79.17.1.1 Cutting Cycle (G77)Straight cutting cycle can be defined in the following ...

  • Page 126

    17.1.1 Cutting Cycle (G77)126Fig. 17.1.1-3In case of incremental programming the signs of addresses U, W and R(I) influence the move-ment directions as follows:

  • Page 127

    17.1.2 Thread Cutting Cycle (G78)127Fig. 17.1.2-1Fig. 17.1.2-217.1.2 Thread Cutting Cycle (G78)Straight thread cutting cycle can be defined in the following way:G78 X(U)__ Z(W)__ Q__ F(E)__Incremental programming is also possible with operator I or by programming G91.In case of programming the da...

  • Page 128

    17.1.2 Thread Cutting Cycle (G78)128Fig. 17.1.2 -3Taper thread cutting cycle can be defined in the following way:G78 X(U)__ Z(W)__ R(I)__ Q__ F(E)__The taper can be specified at either address R or I. In both cases the data interpretation is thesame. The data given at address R(I) is always incre...

  • Page 129

    17.1.3 End Face Cutting Cycle (G79)129Fig. 17.1.3 -1Fig. 17.1.3 -217.1.3 End Face Cutting Cycle (G79)Straight face cutting cycle can be defined in the following way:G79 X(U)__ Z(W)__ F__Incremental programming is also possible with operator I or by programming G91.In case of incremental programmi...

  • Page 130

    17.1.3 End Face Cutting Cycle (G79)130Fig. 17.1.4 -3In case of incremental programming the signs of addresses U, W and R(K) influence the move-ment directions as follows:

  • Page 131

    17.1.4 Simple Cycle Application131Fig. 17.1.4 -117.1.4 Single Cycle ApplicationBoth G codes and input parameters of cycles are modal. This means that if the cycle variablesX(U), Z(W) or R(I or K), are already given and their values have not changed, they must not berewritten in pogram.. For examp...

  • Page 132

    17.2.1 Stock Removal in Turning (G71)132Fig. 17.2.1 -117.2 Multiple Repetitive Cycles Multiple repetitive cycles simplify the writing of machining programs. For example the profileof the part must be specified for finishing. At the same time this profile determines the basis ofcycles executing st...

  • Page 133

    17.2.1 Stock Removal in Turning (G71)133Fig. 17.2.1 -2where:)d:Depth of cut. Positive number interpreted always in radius. The depth of cut can also begiven at parameter 1339 DPTHCUT as well as this parameter is overwritten as the effectof the program command. This also means that in case the dep...

  • Page 134

    17.2.1 Stock Removal in Turning (G71)134ranging from ns to nf:CORRECTN(ns) X(U) G41 ...(G41)... ... (G40)N(nf) G40 ...or G41N(ns) X(U) .........N(nf) ... G40INCORRECT G41N(ns) X(U) ... ... ... G40N(nf) ...orN(ns) G41 X(U) .........N(nf) ... G40If the cycl...

  • Page 135

    17.2.1 Stock Removal in Turning (G71)135Fig. 17.2.1 -3Fig. 17.2.1 -4Fig. 17.2.1 -5increasing or decreasing in X direction, i.e., the profile may have concaves. The cycle can handleat most 10 reflex pockets.On the other hand in Z directionthe profile must remain monoto-nic, it cannot include refle...

  • Page 136

    17.2.1 Stock Removal in Turning (G71)136Fig. 17.2.1 -6Fig. 17.2.1 -7In case of stock removal in turning type 2 the esca-ping amount is perpendicular to axis Z and is donewith valid escape amount “e”.The below figure shows an example how does the cycle cut the rough workpiece.In the above case...

  • Page 137

    17.2.2 Stock Removal in Facing (G72)137Fig. 17.2.2 -117.2.2 Stock Removal in Facing (G72)There are two kinds of stock removals in facing: Type 1 and 2.Stock removal in facing type 1The stock removal in facing (G72) seen in the below figure is the same as stock removal inturning G71 except for tha...

  • Page 138

    17.2.2 Stock Removal in Facing (G72)138Fig. 17.2.2 -22nd specification method:G72 P (ns) Q (nf) U()u) W()w) D()d) F(f) S(s) T(t)N(ns) Z(W) ......F___S___T___N(nf) ...The cycle can be used in all four quadrants.The figure shows the finishing allowance signfor all four cases.In block No. ...

  • Page 139

    17.2.3 Pattern Repeating Cycle (G73)139Fig. 17.2.3 -117.2.3 Pattern Repeating Cycle (G73)This cycle can be used for cutting parts whose rough shape has already been made by rough ma-chining, forging or casting method. This function permits cutting a fixed pattern repeatedly, witha pattern being d...

  • Page 140

    17.2.3 Pattern Repeating Cycle (G73)140d:Number of division. The number of division can also be given at parameter 1343 NUM-DIV as well as this parameter is overwritten as the effect of program command. The valuespecified for relief (parameters RELIEFX, RELIEFZ) is divided by this number and thea...

  • Page 141

    17.2.4 Finishing Cycle (G70)141Fig. 17.2.4-117.2.4 Finishing Cycle (G70)After the stock removal with G71, G72 or G73 finishing can be defined by means of commandG70. Finishing can be given with the following command:G70 P (ns) Q (nf) U()u) W()w)ns:Sequence number of the first block for the pr...

  • Page 142

    17.2.5 End Face Peck Drilling Cycle (G74)142Fig. 17.2.5 -117.2.5 End Face Peck Drilling Cycle (G74)The enclosed figure shows the process of end face peck drilling cycle G74. The drilling is in Zdirection.1st specification method:Command lineG74 R (e)G74 X(U) Z(W) P ()i) Q ()k) R ()d) Fwhere:...

  • Page 143

    17.2.5 End Face Peck Drilling Cycle (G74)143However, if the filling out of addresses X(U) and P()i) is omitted the sign of R()d) is in-terpreted and the movement direction is determined by the sign of )d at the cutting bot-tom.F:FeedrateIn the figure (F) indicates the phases done at feedrate and ...

  • Page 144

    17.2.6 Outer Diameter/Internal Diameter Drilling Cycle (G75)144Fig. 17.2.6 -117.2.6 Outer Diameter/Internal Diameter Drilling Cycle (G75)The enclosed figure shows the process of outer diameter/internal diameter drilling cycle G75.1st specification method:G75 R (e)G75 X(U) Z(W) P ()i) Q ()k) R...

  • Page 145

    17.2.6 Outer Diameter/Internal Diameter Drilling Cycle (G75)145

  • Page 146

    17.2.7 Multiple Thread Cutting Cycle (G76)146Fig. 17.2.7 -1Fig. 17.2.7 -217.2.7 Multiple Thread Cutting Cycle (G76)The enclosed figure shows the process of multiple thread cutting cycle G76.

  • Page 147

    17.2.7 Multiple Thread Cutting Cycle (G76)1471st specification method:Command linesG76 P (n) (r) (") Q ()dmin) R (d)G76 X(U) Z(W) P (k) Q ()d) R (i) F(E)(L)where:n:Repetitive count in finishing (n=01...99)The value is modal, unchanging until overwritten. The repetitive count of finish...

  • Page 148

    17.2.7 Multiple Thread Cutting Cycle (G76)148L:Lead of threadIts programming corresponds to that of G33. Value written at address F indicates threadlead, while the value written at address E indicates the ridges pro inch.The above parameters are the input data of second block G76 X(U) Z(W) R (i...

  • Page 149

    17.2.7 Multiple Thread Cutting Cycle (G76)149Fig. 17.2.7 -3Fig. 17.2.7 -4

  • Page 150

    17.2.7 Multiple Thread Cutting Cycle (G76)150Fig. 17.2.7 -6Fig. 17.2.7 -5

  • Page 151

    17.2.7 Multiple Thread Cutting Cycle (G76)151Fig. 17.2.7 -7

  • Page 152

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling152Fig. 18-118 Canned Cycles for DrillingA drilling cycle may be broken up into the following operations.Operation 1: Positioning in the Selected PlaneOperation 2: Operation After PositioningOperation 3: Movement in Rapid Traverse to Point ROperation 4: Operation ...

  • Page 153

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling153Fig. 18-2where Xp is axis X or the one parallel to itYp is axis Y or the one parallel to itZp is axis Z or the one parallel to it.Axes U, V, W are regarded to be parallel ones when they are defined in parameters.If face drilling is to be programmed, where the dril...

  • Page 154

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling154Fig. 18-3Initial point:The initial point is the position of axis selected for drilling; it will be recorded – when the cycle mode is set up. For example, in the case ofN1 G17 G90 G0 Z200N2 G81 X0 C0 Z50 R150N3 X100 C30 Z80the position of initial point will be Z=2...

  • Page 155

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling155Fig. 18-4group. Withdrawal is accomplished in rapid traverse.Data of drillingBottom position of the hole (point Z): Xp, Yp, ZpThe bottom position of the hole or point Z (in case of G17) has to be specified at the address ofthe drilling axis. The coordinate of the b...

  • Page 156

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling156Fig. 18-5Dwell (P)Specifies the time of dwell at the bottom of the hole. Its specification is governed by the rules de-scribed at G04. The value of the dwell is a modal one deleted by G80 or by the codes of the inter-polation group.Feed (F)It will define the feed. ...

  • Page 157

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling157Fig. 18-6N1 G90 G17 G0 X200 C–60 Z50 N2 G81 CI60 Z–40 R3 F50 L6Under the above commands the control will drill6 holes spaced at 60 degrees around a 100mm-ra-dius circle. The position of the first hole coincideswith the point of X=200 C=0 coordinates. Sinceit is...

  • Page 158

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling158Fig. 18.1.1-118.1 Detailed Description of Canned Cycles18.1.1 High Speed Peck Drilling Cycle (G83.1)The variables used in the cycle areG17 G83.1 Xp__ Yp__ C__ Zp__ R__ Q__ E__ F__ L__G18 G83.1 Zp__ Xp__ C__ Yp__ R__ Q__ E__ F__ L__G19 G83.1 Yp__ Zp__ C__ ...

  • Page 159

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling159Fig. 18.1.2-118.1.2 Counter Tapping Cycle (G84.1)This cycle can be used only with a spring tap. The variables used in the cycle areG17 G84.1 Xp__ Yp__ C__ Zp__ R__ (P__) F__ L__G18 G84.1 Zp__ Xp__ C__ Yp__ R__ (P__) F__ L__G19 G84.1 Yp__ Zp__ C__ Xp__ ...

  • Page 160

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling160Fig. 18.1.3-118.1.3 Fine Boring Cycle (G86.1)Cycle G76 is only applicable when the facility of spindle orientation is incorporated in the ma-chine-tool. In this case parameter ORIENT1 is to be set to 1, otherwise message 3052 ERRORIN G76 is returned.Since, on the b...

  • Page 161

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling161Fig. 18.1.5-118.1.4 Canned Cycle for Drilling Cancel (G80)The code G80 will cancel the cycle state, the cycle variables will be deleted.Z and R will assume incremental 0 value (the rest of variables will assume 0).With coordinates programmed in block G80 but no oth...

  • Page 162

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling162Fig. 18.1.6-118.1.6 Drilling, Counter Boring Cycle (G82)The variables used in the cycle areG17 G82 Xp__ Yp__ C__ Zp__ R__ P__ F__ L__G18 G82 Zp__ Xp__ C__ Yp__ R__ P__ F__ L__G19 G82 Yp__ Zp__ C__ Xp__ R__ P__ F__ L__the operations of the cycle are1.rap...

  • Page 163

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling163Fig. 18.1.7-118.1.7 Peck Drilling Cycle (G83)The variables used in the cycle areG17 G83 Xp__ Yp__ C__ Zp__ R__ Q__ E__ F__ L__G18 G83 Zp__ Xp__ C__ Yp__ R__ Q__ E__ F__ L__G19 G83 Yp__ Zp__ C__ Xp__ R__ Q__ E__ F__ L__The oprations of the cycle are1.rap...

  • Page 164

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling164Fig. 18.1.8-118.1.8 Tapping Cycle (G84)This cycle can be used only with a spring tap.The variables used in the cycle areG17 G84 Xp__ Yp__ C__ Zp__ R__ (P__) F__ L__G18 G84 Zp__ Xp__ C__ Yp__ R__ (P__) F__ L__G19 G84 Yp__ Zp__ C__ Xp__ R__ (P__) F__ L...

  • Page 165

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling16518.1.9 Rigid (Clockwise and Counter-clockwise) Tap Cycles (G84.2, G84.3)In a tapping cycle the quotient of the drill-axis feed and the spindle rpm must be equal to thethread pitch of the tap. In other words, under ideal conditions of tapping, the quotient must be ...

  • Page 166

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling166Fig. 18.1.9-1 – In state G94 (feed per minute), where P is the thread pitch in mm/rev or inches/rev,S is the spindle speed in rpmIn this case the displacement and the feed along the drilling axis and the spindle will beas follows (Z assumed to be the drilling axi...

  • Page 167

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling167Fig. 18.1.9-26.-7.linear interpolation between the drilling axis and the spindle, with the spindle be-ing rotated counter-clockwise8.-9.with G98, rapid-traverse retraction to the initial point10.-In the case of G84.3, the operations of the cycle are1.rapid-traverse...

  • Page 168

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling168Fig. 18.1.10-118.1.10 Boring Cycle (G85)The variables used in the cycle areG17 G85 Xp__ Yp__ C__ Zp__ R__ F__ L__G18 G85 Zp__ Xp__ C__ Yp__ R__ F__ L__G19 G85 Yp__ Zp__ C__ Xp__ R__ F__ L__The operations of the cycle are1.rapid-traverse positioning in t...

  • Page 169

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling169Fig. 18.1.11-118.1.11 Boring Cycle Tool Retraction with Rapid Traverse (G86)The variables used in the cycle areG17 G86 Xp__ Yp__ C__ Zp__ R__ F__ L__G18 G86 Zp__ Xp__ C__ Yp__ R__ F__ L__G19 G86 Yp__ Zp__ C__ Xp__ R__ F__ L__The spindle has to be given ...

  • Page 170

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling170Fig. 18.1.12-118.1.12 Boring Cycle/Back Boring Cycle (G87)The cycle will be performed in two different ways.A. Boring Cycle, Manual Operation at Bottom PointUnless the machine is provided with the facility of spindle orientation (parameter ORIENT1=0),the control wi...

  • Page 171

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling171Fig. 18.1.12-2B. Back Boring CycleIf the machine is provided with the facility of spindle orientation (parameter ORIENT1=1), thecontrol will act in conformity with case "B".The variables of cycle areG17 G87 Xp__ Yp__ C__ I__ J__ Zp__ R__ F__ L__G18 G...

  • Page 172

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling172Fig. 18.1.13-118.1.13 Boring Cycle (Manual Operation on the Bottom Point) (G88)The variables used in the cycle areG17 G88 Xp__ Yp__ C__ Zp__ R__ P__ F__ L__G18 G88 Zp__ Xp__ C__ Yp__ R__ P__ F__ L__G19 G88 Yp__ Zp__ C__ Xp__ R__ P__ F__ L__The spindle m...

  • Page 173

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling173Fig. 18.1.14-118.1.14 Boring Cycle (Dwell on the Bottom Point, Retraction with Feed) (G89)The variables used in the cycle areG17 G89 Xp__ Yp__ Zp__ R__ P__ F__ L__G18 G89 Zp__ Xp__ Yp__ R__ P__ F__ L__G19 G89 Yp__ Zp__ Xp__ R__ P__ F__ L__The operations of...

  • Page 174

    18 Canned Cycles for Drilling174To illustrate the foregoing, let us see the following example. G81 X_ C_ Z_ R_ F(the drilling cycle is executed)X(the drilling cycle is executed)F_(the drilling cycle is not executed, F is over-written)M_(the drilling cycle is not executed, code M isexecuted) G4P...

  • Page 175

    19 Polygonal Turning175Fig. 19-1Fig. 19.1-1Fig. 19.1-219 Polygonal TurningIn case of polygonal turning both the tool and the workpiece arerotated in relation to each other by a specified revolution ratio.Polygons with varying side number are resulted from the changeof the revolution ratio and the...

  • Page 176

    19 Polygonal Turning176Fig. 19.1-4Fig. 19.1-3Fig. 19.1-5With other revolution ratios thecurves will differ from ellipses,although the polygonal sides canbe estimated even with thoseforms.19.2 Programming Polygonal Turning (G51.2, G50.2)CommandG51.2 P_ Q_switches polygonal turning mode on. The rev...

  • Page 177

    19 Polygonal Turning177CommandG50.2switches polygonal turning off.Commands G51.2 and G50.2 must always be issued in separate blocks.In order to execute polygonal turning, a second spindle, rotating the tool, must also be mountedon the machine tool. Both spindles, i.e. the work spindle and the too...

  • Page 178

    20 Measurement Functions178Fig. 20.1-120 Measurement Functions20.1 Skip Function (G31)InstructionG31 v (F) (P)starts linear interpolation to the point of v coordinate. The motion is carried on until an externalskip signal (e.g. that of a touch-probe) arrives or the control reaches the end-point p...

  • Page 179

    20 Measurement Functions179Fig. 20.1-2Fig. 20.1-3Fig. 20.2-1The value specified at coordinates v may be an incremental or an absolute one. If the next move-ment command following G31 block is specified in incremental coordinates, the motion will becalculated from the point where the skip signal h...

  • Page 180

    20 Measurement Functions180The appropriate length compensation register have to be set up by programing Tnnmm prior tocommencement of the measurement. – G36, G37 are single-shot instructions. – Cycle G36, G37 will be executed invariably in the coordinate system of the current workpiece. – P...

  • Page 181

    21 Safety Functions181Fig. 21.1-121 Safety Functions21.1 Programmable Stroke Check (G22, G23)InstructionG22 X Y Z I J K Pwill forbid to enter the area selected by the command. Meaning of addresses:X:Limit along axis X in positive directionI:Limit along axis X in negative directionY:Limit along ax...

  • Page 182

    21 Safety Functions182Fig. 21.2-1of the tool at the limit. If, however, the compensation is not set up, the reference point of the toolholder will not be allowed into the prohibited area. It is advisable to set the border of the forbid-den area at the axis of the tool for the longest one. – Pro...

  • Page 183

    21 Safety Functions183Fig. 21.3-1Fig. 21.3-221.3 Stroke Check Before Movement The control differentiates two forbidden areas. The first is the parametric overtravel area whichdelimits the physically possible movement range of the machine. The extreme positions of thatrange are referred to as limi...

  • Page 184

    22 Custom Macro18422 Custom Macro22.1 The Simple Macro Call (G65)As a result of instructionG65 P(program number) L(number of repetitions) <argument assignment>the custom macro body (program) specified at address P (program number) will be called as manytimes as is the number specified at ad...

  • Page 185

    22 Custom Macro185In the above example, variable #8 has already been assigned a value by the second address J(value, -12), since the value of address E is also assigned to variable #8, the control returns errormessage 3064 BAD MACRO STATEMENT.A decimal point and a sign can also be transferred at ...

  • Page 186

    22 Custom Macro18622.2.2 Macro Modal Call From Each Block (G66.1)As a result of commandG66.1 P(program number) L(number of repetitions) <argument assignment>all subsequent blocks will be interpreted as argument assignment, and the macro of the numberspecified at address P will be called, an...

  • Page 187

    22 Custom Macro187Each NC block following G66.1 to a block containing code G67 will produce a macro call withthe rules of argument assignment described under point 2. No macro will be called if an emptyblock is found (e.g., N1240) where a reference is made to a single N address, or from a block c...

  • Page 188

    22 Custom Macro188The particular program number to be called by the calling M code has to be selected by parame-ters.M(9020)=code M calling program O9020M(9021)=code M calling program O9021 :M(9029)=code M calling program O9029Code M can specify invariably a type G65 call (i.e., a non-modal on...

  • Page 189

    22 Custom Macro18922.6 Subprogram Call with T CodeWith parameter T(9034)=1 set, the value of T written in the program will not be transferred tothe PLC, instead, the T code will initiate the call of subprogram No. O9034.Now blockGg Xx Yy Ttwill be equivalent to the following two blocks:#199=tGg X...

  • Page 190

    22 Custom Macro190If a call of a user G, M, S, T code is made in the subprogram, FGMAC=0, not enabled (executed as ordinary codes M, S, ... G) FGMAC=1, enabled, i.e. a new call is generated.22.9 Differences Between the Call of a Subprogram and the Call of a Macro – A macro call may include argu...

  • Page 191

    22 Custom Macro191Instruction G67 specified in block N14 will cancel the macro called in block N12 (O0003); theone specified in block N15 will cancel the macro called in block N10 (O0002).In the case of multiple calls of macros type G66.1, first the last specified macro will be called inentering ...

  • Page 192

    22 Custom Macro19222.11 Variables of the Programming LanguageVariables instead of specific numerical values can be assigned to the addresses in the main pro-grams, subprograms and macros. A value can be assigned to each variable within the permissiblerange. The use of variables will make for much...

  • Page 193

    22 Custom Macro19322.11.3 Vacant VariablesA variable that has not been referred to (undefined) is vacant. Variable #0 is used for a variablethat is always vacant:#0=<vacant>22.11.4 Numerical Format of VariablesEach variable is represented by 32 bits of mantissa and 8 bits of characteristi...

  • Page 194

    22 Custom Macro19422.12 Types of VariablesWith reference to the ways of their uses and their properties, the variables are classified into local,common and system variables. The number of the variables tells the particular category to whichit pertains.22.12.1 Local Variables (#1 through #33)The l...

  • Page 195

    22 Custom Macro19522.12.3 System VariablesThe system variables are fixed ones providing information about the states of the system.Interface input signals - #1000–#1015, #103216 interface input signals can be determined, one by one, by reading the system variables #1000through #1015. Name of s...

  • Page 196

    22 Custom Macro196Interface output signals - #1100–#1115, #113216 interface output signals can be issued, one by one, by assigning values to variables #1100through #1115. Name of system variables Interface input with reference to the PLC program ...

  • Page 197

    22 Custom Macro197Tool compensation values - #10001 through #13999The tool compensation values can be read from variables #10001 through #19999, or values canbe assigned them.NXYZRQweargeom..weargeom..weargeom..weargeom..1#10001#15001#14001#19001#11001#16001#12001#17001#130012#10002#15002#14002#1...

  • Page 198

    22 Custom Macro198Work zero-point offsets - #5201 through #5328The work zero-point offsets can be read at variables #5201 through #5328, or values can beassigned them.No. of value of variablevariableworkpiececoordinatesystem#5201common work zero point offset, axis 1common forall thecoord...

  • Page 199

    22 Custom Macro1991, 2 and 3 are assigned to addresses X, Y and Z, respectively, but different specifications are alsopermissible.Alarm - #3000By defining#3000=nnn(ALARM),a numerical error message (nnn=max. three decimal digits) and the text of error message can beprovided. The text must be put i...

  • Page 200

    22 Custom Macro200Suppression of stop button, feed override, exact stop - #3004Under the conditions of suppression of feed stop function, the feed will stop after the stop buttonis pressed when the suppression is released.When the feedrate override is suppressed, the override takes the value of 1...

  • Page 201

    22 Custom Macro201The bits have the following meanings:0 = no mirror imaging1 = mirror imaging on.If, e.g., the value of the variable is 5, mirror image is on in axes 1 and 3. The axis number refersto a physical axis, the parameter defining the particular name of axis pertaining to a physical axi...

  • Page 202

    22 Custom Macro202Positional information - #5001 through #5108Positions at block end system position information reading in during variable motion #5001 block end coordinate of axis 1 #5002 block end coordinat...

  • Page 203

    22 Custom Macro203Fig. 22.12.3-1Skip signal position system nature of position information entry during variable motion #5061 Skip signal coordinate of axis 1 (G31) #5062 Skip signal coordinate of axis 2 (G31) : ...

  • Page 204

    22 Custom Macro204Servo lag system nature of position information entry during variable motion #5101 servo lag in axis 1 #5102 servo lag in axis 2 : not possible #...

  • Page 205

    22 Custom Macro205Subtraction: #i = #j – #kThe code of the operation is –.As a result of the operation, variable #i will assume the difference of the values of variab-les #j and #k.Logical sum, or: #i = #j OR #kThe code of the operation is OR.As a result of operation, the logic sum of variabl...

  • Page 206

    22 Custom Macro206Sine: #i = SIN #jThe code of operation is SIN.As a result of operation, variable #i will assume the sine of variable #j. The value of #jalways refers to degrees.Cosine: #i = COS #jThe code of operation is COS.As a result of operation, variable #i will assume the cosine of variab...

  • Page 207

    22 Custom Macro207Conversion from binary-coded decimal into binary: #i = BIN #jThe code of the function is BIN.As a result of the operation, variable #i will assume the binary value of variable #j. Thevalue range of variable #j is 0 to 99999999.Discard fractions less than 1: #i = FIX #jThe code o...

  • Page 208

    22 Custom Macro20822.13.3 Logical OperationsThe programming language uses the following logical operations:Equal to#i EQ #jNot equal to#i NE #jGreater than#i GT #jLess than#i LT #jGreater than or equal to#i GE #jLess than or equal to#i LE #jThe variables on both sides of a logical operation can b...

  • Page 209

    22 Custom Macro20922.13.7 Iteration: WHILE[<conditional expression>] Dom ... ENDmAs long as [<conditional expression>] is satisfied, the blocks following DOm up to block ENDmwill be repeatedly executed. In the instruction, the control will check wether the condition hasbeen fulfilled;...

  • Page 210

    22 Custom Macro210 – Pairs DOm ... ENDm can be nested into one another at three levels. : DO1 : DO2 : DO3 : : correct : END3 : END2 : END1 : – Pairs DOm ... ENDm may not be overlapped. : DO1 : DO2 : : ...

  • Page 211

    22 Custom Macro211 – No entry is permissible into a cycle from outside. : GOTO150 : DO1 : : false : N150 : END1 : or : DO1 : N150 : : false : END1 : GOTO150 : – A subprogram or a macro can be ca...

  • Page 212

    22 Custom Macro212Opening a peripheral - POPENnBefore issuing a data output command, the appropriate peripheral has to be opened, throughwhich the data output is to be performed. The appropriate peripheral is selected by number n.n = 1RS–232C interface of serial channeln = 31 memory of control...

  • Page 213

    22 Custom Macro213 Characters to be output areDecimal data output - DPRNT[...]All characters and digits will be output in ISO or ASCII code, depending on the parameter setting. – For the rules of character outputs, see instruction BPRNT. – For the output of variable values, the numbers of d...

  • Page 214

    22 Custom Macro214 Output of data with PRNT=0: Data output at PRNT=1: 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 --- X 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 --- Space 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 --- Space 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 --- Space 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 --- Space 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 --- 3 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 --- 5 0 0 1 0 1 1...

  • Page 215

    22 Custom Macro215Closing a peripheral - PCLOSnThe peripheral opened with command POPEN has to be closed with command PCLOS. Com-mand PCLOS has to be followed by the specification of the number of peripheral to be closed.At the time of closing, a % character is also sent to the peripheral, i.e., ...

  • Page 216

    22 Custom Macro216Fig. 22.15-1Fig. 22.15-2Example:SBSTM=0%O1000...N10 #100=50 N20 #101=100N30 G1 X#100 Y#101N40 #100=60 (definition after N30)N50 #101=120 (definition after N30)N60 G1 X#100 Y#101Definition commands in blocks N40 andN50 are executed after the movement ofblock N30.L Conclusions: ...

  • Page 217

    Notes217Notes

  • Page 218

    Index in Alphabetical Order218Index in Alphabetical Order:#0 ............................ 193#10001–#13999 ................. 197#1000–#1015 ................... 195#1032 ......................... 195#1100–#1115 ................... 196#1132 ......................... 196#195 .....................

  • Page 219

    Index in Alphabetical Order219Going around the outside of a corner . 91-94Inch ......................... 36, 38Increment System ........... 16, 37, 78Increment System ............ 37, 44input .......................... 17output ......................... 17Incremental Coordinate Specification . 14...

  • Page 220

    Index in Alphabetical Order220PRTREQRD .................. 201PRTTOTAL .................. 201RADDIF ...................... 26RAPDIST ................ 179, 180RAPID6 ....................... 66REFPOS ...................... 53RETG73 ................. 155, 158S(9033) ...................... 189SECOND ....

  • Page 221

    Index in Alphabetical Order221

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