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    237-1060-E, 2+2 PLC in Industrial Control Ing. Marie Martinásková, Ph.D. Ing. Jakub JURA

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    Czech Technical University in Prague Mechanical Engineering Faculty Institute of Instrumentation and Control Engineering Technická 4, 166 07 Prague 6

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    The Head of the Institute of Instrumentation and Control Engineering Prof. Ing. Pavel ZÍTEK, Dr.Sc. Room 413, Dejvice

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    Ing. Marie Martinásková, Ph.D. Lectures, exercises, laboratory room: 511 Dejvice phone to the room: 224352528 mobil:732605047

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    Ing. Tomáš Vyhlídal, Ph.D. Exercises, laboratory room: 305i Dejvice phone to the room: 22435…. email:………

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    Lectures: Thuersday 10.45 room 109 Dejvice Exercises, laboratory: Thuersday: 12.30 room 109 Dejvice

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    Lecture 1 1.The PLC in automation technology 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Areas of application of a PLC 1.3 Basic design of a PLC 1.4 The new PLC standard IEC 1131

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    1.The PLC in automation technology

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    1.1 Introduction

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    PLC Programmable Logic Controller The first PLC was developed by a group of engineers at General Motors in 1968, when the company were looking for an alternative to replace complex relay control systems.

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    The new control system had to meet the following requirements: • Simple programming • Program changes without system intervention (no internal rewiring) • Smaller, cheaper and more reliable than corresponding relay control systems • Simple, low cost maintenance

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    Subsequent development resulted in a system enabled: • the simple connection of binary signals • the requirements as to how these signals were to be connected was specified in the control program • with the new systems it became possible for the first time to plot signals on a screen and t...

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    More then three decades have passed: • the enormous progress was made in the development of micro electronics • great influence also at PLCs • For instance, even if program optimisation and thus a reduction of required memory capacity initially still represented an important key task for th...

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    Evolution….. • the range of functions has grown considerably • 15 years ago, process visualisation, analogue processing or even the use of a PLC as a controller, were considered as Utopian….. • nowadays, the support of these functions forms an integral part of many PLCs.

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    1.2 Areas of application of a PLC

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    Every system or machine has a controller. Depending on the type of technology used, controllers can be divided into: • pneumatic • hydraulic • electrical • electronic Frequently, a combination of different technologies is used.

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    Furthermore, differentiation is made between: • hard-wired programmable (e.g. wiring of electromechanical or electronic components) controllers • programmble logic controllers

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    Hard-wired programmable controllers - 1 • This first type of controller is used primarily in cases, where any reprogramming by the user is out of the question and the large job size warrants the development of a special controller.

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    Hard-wired programmable controllers - 2 Typical applications for such controllers can be found in : • automatic washing machines • cameras • video cameras • mobile phones • cars etc.

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    Universal controllers -1 However, if the smaller job size does not warrant the development of a special controller or if the user is to have the facility of making simple or independent program changes, or of parameter changes (e.g.setting timers and counters), then the use of a universal contro...

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    Universal controllers -2 The PLC represents such a universal controller! It can be used for different applications and, via the program installed in its memory, provides the user with a simple means of changing, extending and optimising control processes.

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    Universal controllers -3 Application areas of PLCs: • production machines • production lines • production processes • environmentally systems (waste water cleaning,….) • building equipment systems (heating,cooling, lighting, safety systems…)

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    The original task of a PLC • the interconnection of input signals according to a specified program and switching corresponding output signals • both input and output signals are supposed to be logical ones • Boolean algebra forms the mathematical basis for this operation, which recognises ...

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    New tasks of a PLC However the tasks of a PLC have rapidly multiplied: • timer and counter functions • memory setting and resetting • mathematical computing operations All this represent functions, which can be executed by practically any of today's PLCs.

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    Further Development of PLCs-1 • The demands to be met by PLC's continued to grow in line with their rapidly spreading usage and the development in automation technology • Visualisation, i.e. the representation of machine statuses such as the control program being executed, via display or moni...

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    Further Development of PLCs -2 • Also supervising, i.e. the facility for human to intervene in control processes or, alternatively, to make such intervention by unauthorised persons impossible. • Very soon, it also became necessary to interconnect and harmonise individual systems controlled v...

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    Networking of several PLCs • The networking of several PLCs as well as that of a PLC and master computer is effected via special communication interfaces. • To this effect, many of the more recent PLCs are compatible with open, standardised bus systems, such as Profibus to DIN 19 245. • Tha...

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    PLC - not only for logic control-1 • At the end of the seventies, binary inputs and outputs were finally expanded with the addition of analogue inputs and outputs, since many of today's technical applications require analogue processing (force measurement, speed setting, servo-pneumatic positio...

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    PLC - not only for logic control-2 • At the same time, the acquisition or output of analogue signals permits an actual/setpoint value comparison and as a result the realisation of automatic control engineering functions, a task, which widely exceeds the scope suggested by the name (programmable...

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    Currently PLCs - 1 • The PLCs currently on offer in the market have been adaped to the customer requirements to such an extent that it has become possible to purchase an eminently suitable PLC for virtually any application • Miniature PLCs with a minimum number of inputs/outputs (6/4 IOs) and...

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    Currently PLCs - 2 • Many PLCs can be expanded by means of additional logic input/output, analogue input/output, positioning and communication modules • Special PLCs are available for safety technology, shipping tasks, mining tasks etc.

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    Currently PLCs - 3 • Yet further PLCs are able to process several programs „simultaneously“ – multitasking or truly simultaneously – multiprocessing (more processors in one PLC) • Finally, PLCs are coupled with other automation components (HMI, identification systems, smart actuators,...

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    1.3 Basic design of a PLC

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    The term 'programmable logic controller' is defined as follows by lEC 1131, Part 1: " PLC is a digitally operating electronic system, designed for use in an industrial environment, which uses a programmable memory for the internal storage of user-oriented instructions for implementing speci...

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    So we can say that programmable logic controller is therefore nothing more than a microcomputer, tailored specifically for certain control tasks

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    System components of a PLC PLC Program

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    System components of a PLC PLC Program HW

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    System components of a PLC PLC Program HW SW

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    System components of a PLC PLC Program HW SW PLC

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    PLC and Field PLC Program HW SW PLC FIELD

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    Function of input and output module • The function of an input module is to convert incoming signals from sensors into signals which can be processed by the PLC and to pass these to the central control unit. • The reverse task is performed by an output module. This converts the PLC signal int...

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    Function of CPU • The actual processing of the signals is effected in the central control unit (CCU) in accordance with the program stored in the memory. • Another name for CCU : CPU = Central processing unit is often used

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    The program of a PLC can be created in various ways: • via assembler- type commands in 'statement list' • in higher-level, problem-oriented languages such as structured text • in the form of a flow chart such as represented by a sequential function chart • in Europe, the use of function b...

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    External design of PLC Depending on how the central control unit (CCU) is connected to the input and output modules, ditferentiation can be made between: • compact PLCs (input module, central control unit and output module in one housing) • modular PLCs

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    Modular PLCs • Modular PLCs may be configured individually. The modules required for the practical application - which can, for instance, include digital input/output modules, analogue modules, positioning and communication modules - are inserted in a rack, where individual modules are linked ...

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    Modular PLCs - examples • Two examples of modular PLCs are shown on the following figures. • These represent – the familiar modular PLC FPC405 FESTO – the new S7 -300 series by Siemens.

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    PLC plug-in cards (Festo FPC 405)

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    Modular PLC – card format • The card format PLC is a special type of modular PLC, developed during the last years of previous century. • With this type, individual or a number of printed circuit board modules are in a standardised housing. • The Festo FPC 405 is representative of this ty...

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    Modular PLC - Siemens S7-300

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    Compact PLC - example FEC FC 34 a PS1 FC 38

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    Various abbreviations for Programmable Logic Controllers: • PLC - Programmable Logic Controller • FPC - Free Programmable Controller • PC - Programmable Controller (Attention! PC = Personal Computer most often)

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    Compact x Modular PLC • A wide range of variants exists, particularly in the case of more recent PLCs. • These include both modular as well as compact characteristics and important features such as space saving, flexibility and scope for expansion.

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    Hardware design for a PLC The hardware design for a programmable logic controller is such that it is able to withstand typical industrial environments as regard: - signal levels - heat - humidity - fluctuations in current supply - mechanical impact

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    1.4 The new PLC standard IEC 1131

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    Previously PLC standards • Previously valid PLC standards focussing mainly on PLC programming were generally geared to current state of the art technology in Europe at the end of the seventies. • This took into account non-networked PLC systems, which primarily execute logic operations on bi...

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    Previously situation • no equivalent, standardised language elements existed for the PLC developments and system expansions made in the eighties such as – processing of analogue signals – interconnection of intelligent modules – networked PLC systems etc. Consequently, PLC systems by di...

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    International standard • Since 1992, an international standard now exists for programmable logic controllers and associated peripheral devices (programming and diagnostic tools, testing equipment, human-to-machine (HMI) interfaces etc.). • In this context, a device configured by the user and ...

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    The new lEC 1131 standard consists of six parts: • Part 1: General information • Part 2: Equipment requirements and tests • Part 3: Programming languages • Part 4: User guidelines (in preparation with lEC) • Part 5: Messaging service specification (in preparation ...

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    International, European and German Standards • Parts 1 to 3 of this standard were adopted unamended as European Standard EN 61 131,Parts1 to 3 • As such, they also held the status of a German Standard, DIN EN 66 1131

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    The purpose of the new standard • to define and standardise – the design and functionality of a PLC – the languages required for programming to the extent where users were able to operate using different PLC systems without any particular difficulties

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    The next lectures will be dealing with this standard in greater detail • The new standard takes into account as many aspects as possible regarding the design, application and use of PLC systems. • The extensive specifications serve to define open, standardised PLC systems. • Manufacturers m...

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    Support of the Standard • After initial reservations, a relatively large group of interested people (PLCopen) has been formed to support this standard. A large number of major PLC suppliers are members of the association, i.e. Allen Bradley, Klockner-Moeller, Philips,Schneider Group to mention ...

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    New programming systems • The new programming systems conforming the Standard IEC 1131 are already available in the market and others are being developed at the time and going to press. • The norm therefore stands a good chance of being accepted and succeeding. • Not least, it is hoped th...

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    The END of the Lecture 1 Thank You for Your Attention